Kráľ Carol

Kráľ Carol

Carol Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen sa narodila v roku 1839. Získal vzdelanie na vojenskej škole v Munsteri a na delostreleckej škole v Berlíne.

V roku 1866 gróf Phillipe z Flandry odmietol rumunský trón. Potom bol princ Carol požiadaný a on ho prijal. Carol, príbuzná cisára Wilhelma II., Bola pro-nemecká, s čím väčšina Rumunov nesúhlasila.

Carol viedla rumunské vojská počas rusko-osmanskej vojny. Víťazstvo prinieslo nezávislosť Rumunska 10. mája 1877.

Po vypuknutí prvej svetovej vojny sa Carol niekoľkokrát pokúsila podporiť spojenie s centrálnymi mocnosťami. Korunná rada však rozhodla, že Rumunsko by sa nemalo pripojiť k Nemecku vo vojne.

Kráľ Carol zvažoval abdikáciu, keď zomrel v októbri 1914. Nahradil ho synovec Ferdinand.


Nevypovedaná pravda Carole Kinga

Je pravdepodobné, že dokonca aj tí, ktorí nikdy nepočuli o Carole Kingovej, počuli jej piesne stokrát. Spolu so svojim prvým manželom bola King hudobnou mysľou niektorých z najväčších hitov 60. rokov, z ktorých sa mnohé stali nadčasovou klasikou. Po rokoch prispievania svojich skladateľských piesní k stratosférickému úspechu niekoľkých ďalších umelcov a skupín sa King rozhodla skúsiť naspievať svoje piesne sama. A po neistých začiatkoch sa stala jednou z najúspešnejších hudobníčok 70. rokov.

Úprimné texty Carole Kingovej dali život kariére niektorých z najobľúbenejších folkových a soulových umelcov všetkých čias milovanej rodinnej dráme a kritikou uznávaného broadwayského muzikálu. Do hudby sa zapísala ako žena a otvorila cestu pre nové generácie speváčok a skladateliek. Tu je niekoľko vecí, ktoré mnohí možno nevedia o umelcovi, ktorý zohral neoddeliteľnú úlohu pri formovaní zvukov 60., 70. rokov a ďalších.


Carole King má svoj prvý hit číslo 1 ako interpretka

Carole King začala svoju kariéru v hudbe ako mladá mladomanželka a absolventka vysokej školy, pracovala na smene 9 na 5 po boku svojho vtedajšieho manžela Gerryho Goffina v továrni na výrobu piesní Dona Kirshnera, Aldon Music. Práve tam, kde pracovala v kóji s klavírom, papierom a kazetovým zapisovačom, je spoluautorkou svojej prvej hitovej piesne (Shirelles ’ “Will You Love Me Tomorrow, ” 1960), svojho druhého a tretieho hitu piesne (Drifters ’ “Some Kind Of Wonderful ” a Bobby Vee ’s “Take Good Care Of My Baby, ” both 1961), jej 14. a 17. hitové piesne (The Chiffons ’ “One Fine Deň, ” 1963, a Hermanovi pustovníci ’ “ Niečo mi hovorí, že som ’m do niečoho dobrého, ” 1964) a tak ďalej a tak ďalej. Až 10 rokov po jej prelome v skladaní piesní však Carole King konečne splnila svoj dávny sen mať vlastnú hitovú nahrávku ako speváčky a skladateľky. 19. júna 1971 získala svoj prvý singel číslo 1 ako interpret s obojstranným hitom “It ’s Too Late/I Feel The Earth Move. ”

Singel skupiny King ’s pochádzal z jedného z najlepších a najpopulárnejších albumov éry spevákov a skladateľov a éry, s ktorou pomohla Carole King. Gobelín bol míľnikom nielen pre Carole King, ale pre ženy v rokenrole všeobecne. Ako povedal kritik Robert Christgau: “King urobil pre ženský hlas to, čo nespočetné množstvo spevákov a skladateľov dosiahlo pred rokmi pre muža: oslobodilo ho od technického dekóra. Trvá na tom, aby bola vypočutá taká, aká je … so všetkými prasklinami a nedokonalosťami, ktoré z toho vyplývajú. ” Na päty GobelínÚspech, nadchádzajúce sólové interpretky ako Carly Simon a Rickie Lee Jones našli jednoduchšiu cestu k popularite a skvelá Joni Mitchell vstúpila do obdobia svojho najväčšieho komerčného úspechu.


História festivalu deviatich lekcií a kolied

Náš festival deviatich lekcií a kolied sa prvýkrát konal na Štedrý večer roku 1918. Naplánoval to Eric Milner-White, ktorý vo veku tridsiatich štyroch rokov bol práve vymenovaný za dekana Kinga po skúsenostiach ako armádny kaplán, ktorý ho presvedčil, že anglikánska cirkev potrebovala nápaditejšie uctievanie. (Vymyslel našu službu Advent Carol v roku 1934 a počas svojich dvadsiatich dvoch rokov vo funkcii dekana v Yorku bol liturgickým priekopníkom a autoritou.) Hudbu potom režíroval Arthur Henry Mann, organista 1876–1929. Zbor zahŕňal šestnásť výšok, ako je stanovené v stanovách kráľa Henricha VI., Ale do roku 1927 mužské hlasy poskytovali čiastočne zboroví učenci a čiastočne starší laickí úradníci, a nie, ako teraz, štrnásť vysokoškolákov.

V roku 1919 bola vykonaná revízia poriadku služby, ktorá zahŕňala prestavbu vyučovacích hodín, a od tohto dátumu sa služba vždy začínala chorálom „Raz v meste kráľovského Dávida“. Takmer každý rok niektoré koledy zmenili a niektoré nové predstavili nasledujúci organisti: Arthur Henry Mann Boris Ord, 1929–57 Harold Darke (jeho náhradník počas vojny), 1940–45 Sir David Willcocks, 1957–73 Philip Ledger, 1974–82 a od roku 1982 Stephen Cleobury. Chrbtica služby, lekcie a modlitby zostala prakticky nezmenená.

Pôvodná služba bola v skutočnosti upravená z rádu vypracovaného E. W. Bensonom, neskorším arcibiskupom z Canterbury, na použitie v drevenej kôlni, ktorá vtedy slúžila ako jeho katedrála v Trure, na Štedrý večer roku 1880.

AC Benson spomenul: „Môj otec zariadil zo starovekých zdrojov malú službu na Štedrý večer - deväť kolied a deväť malých lekcií, ktoré prečítali rôzni predstavitelia Cirkvi, počínajúc zboristom a končiac rôznymi stupňami, Biskup. “Návrh prišiel od GHS. Walpole, neskorší biskup z Edinburghu.

Takmer okamžite iné cirkvi prispôsobili službu pre vlastné použitie. Širší rámec sa začal rozrastať, keď sa služba začala vysielať v roku 1928 a s výnimkou roku 1930 sa vysielala každoročne, dokonca aj počas druhej svetovej vojny, keď bolo z antického skla odstránené starodávne sklo (a tiež všetko teplo). Kaplnku a meno King's nebolo možné z bezpečnostných dôvodov vysielať. Niekedy na začiatku 30. rokov minulého storočia začala BBC vysielať službu v zámorských programoch. Odhaduje sa, že na celom svete sú milióny poslucháčov, vrátane poslucháčov Rádia Four v Spojenom kráľovstve. V posledných rokoch je praxou vysielať digitálny záznam na Štedrý deň v Rádiu tri a od roku 1963 sa pre televíziu pravidelne natáča kratšia služba. K šíreniu jej slávy slúžili aj nahrávky kolied spoločností Decca a EMI.

Týmito a inými spôsobmi sa služba stala verejným majetkom. Čas od času akadémia dostane kópie služieb, ktoré sa konajú napríklad v Západnej Indii alebo na Ďalekom východe, a tieto ukazujú, ako sa tradícia rozšírila. Aj vysielanie sa stalo súčasťou Vianoc pre mnohých ďaleko od Cambridge.

Jeden korešpondent píše, že službu počul v stane na úpätí Everestu iného, ​​v púšti. Mnohí počúvajú doma, zaneprázdnení vlastnými prípravami na Vianoce. Počúvajú ho návštevníci z celého sveta, aby identifikovali kaplnku ako „miesto, kde sa spievajú koledy“.

Bez ohľadu na to, kde je služba počúvaná a je upravená, bez ohľadu na to, či hudbu poskytuje zbor alebo kongregácia, vzor a sila služby, ako zdôraznil dekan Milner-White, pochádzajú z vyučovania, a nie z hudby. „Hlavnou témou je rozvoj láskyplných Božích zámerov. “Videný„ cez okná a slová Biblie “. Miestne záujmy sa rovnako ako tu prejavujú v ponukovej modlitbe a osobné okolnosti poukazujú na rôzne časti služby. Mnohí z tých, ktorí sa zúčastnili prvej služby, si určite spomenuli na tých, ktorí boli zabití vo Veľkej vojne, keď išlo o známu pasáž „Všetci, ktorí sa radujú s nami, ale na inom brehu a vo väčšom svetle“. Centrum služby stále nájdu tí, ktorí „idú v srdci a mysli“ a ktorí súhlasia, že budú nasledovať príbeh.

NA-NOC nás nemajetní nechali odísť
Tento vavrín, nech stojí táto cezmína:
Žijeme v cudzej krajine,
A napodiv pripadá náš predvianočný večer.

Prach nášho otca zostáva sám
A ticho pod iným snehom:
V pravý čas fúka lesná múr,
Fialová prichádza, ale my sme preč.

Nechajte sa starať, aby vrhali drobné tiene,
Tým sú naše životy predovšetkým dokazované,
Trochu náhrady noci, ktorú som miloval,
A držte to slávnostne v minulosti.

Ale nech žiadne kroky nezasiahnu podlahu,
Ani miska plášťa wassail nie je teplá
Lebo kto by si zachoval starodávnu formu
Thro ‘, ktorý duch už nedýcha?

Nebuďte ani piesňou, ani hrou, ani hostinou
Nedotýkajte sa harfy ani nefúkajte
Žiadny tanec, žiadny pohyb, iba sám
Čo sa odľahčuje na jasnom východe

Vzostupných svetov tamojším drevom.
Dlho spí leto v semene
Vybehnite zmerané oblúky a olovo
Záverečný cyklus bohatý na dobré.


Skorý život [upraviť | upraviť zdroj]

Rumunský kráľ Karol I. so svojim synovcom budúcim kráľom Ferdinandom a starým synovcom princom Carol.

Carol sa narodila v zámku Peleș. Carol vyrastala pod palcom svojho dominujúceho prastrýka kráľa Carol I., ktorý do značnej miery vylučoval jeho rodičov, korunného princa nemeckého pôvodu Ferdinanda a britskú korunnú princeznú Marie z akejkoľvek úlohy pri jeho výchove. Rumunsko malo na začiatku 20. storočia famózne uvoľnenú „latinskú“ sexuálnu morálku a v tomto prostredí princezná Marie pokračovala v sérii milostných vzťahov s rôznymi, prevažne rumunskými mužmi, ktorí jej ponúkli viac emocionálneho a sexuálneho uspokojenia, ako jej manžel Ferdinand dokázal. Zo svojej strany Ferdinand urazene nenávidel, keď bol paroháč. Prísna Carol Cítila som, že Marie nie je oprávnená vychovávať princa Carol kvôli svojim milostným vzťahom, zatiaľ čo Marie považovala kráľa za chladného a suverénneho tyrana, ktorý by zničil život jej synovi. Bezdetná Carol I (ktorá vždy chcela syna) považovala princa Carol za svojho náhradného syna a dôkladne ho rozmaznávala tým, že si dopriala každý jeho rozmar. Ferdinand bol dosť plachý a slabý muž, ktorého ľahko zatienila charizmatická Mária, ktorá sa stane veľmi milovaným členom rumunskej kráľovskej rodiny. Keď Carol vyrastala, hanbila sa za svojho otca, ktorého prastrýko aj matka tlačili okolo. Carolino detstvo prežilo emocionálne preťahovanie vojny medzi Carol I a Marie, ktoré mali veľmi odlišné predstavy o tom, ako ho vychovávať. Rumunská historička Marie Bucurová označila bitku medzi Karolou I. a princeznou Máriou za bitku medzi tradičným pruským konzervativizmom 19. storočia, ako ho zosobnila Carol I, a liberálnymi hodnotami modernistickej a sexuálne oslobodenej „Novej ženy“ v 20. storočí. ako zosobnená princezná Marie. Aspekty osobností Marie a Carol I boli prítomné v Carol II. Carol bola predovšetkým v dôsledku bitky medzi kráľom a Máriou skazená a zbavená lásky. Od Carol I určite získal „hlbokú lásku k nemeckému militarizmu“ (slovami americkej historičky Margaret Sankeyovej) a myšlienku, že všetky demokratické vlády boli slabé vlády, ale ovplyvnila ho aj intenzívna frankofília, ktorá v Rumunsku vládla. jeho dňa. Rumunsko na začiatku 20. storočia bolo možno najviac frankofilským národom na celom svete. Rumunská elita posadnuto prijala všetko francúzske za vzor dokonalosti vo všetkom.

Školenie korunného princa Carol počas 1. svetovej vojny s guľometom Chauchat

Počas svojich tínedžerských rokov získala Carol obraz „playboya“, ktorý sa mal stať jeho určujúcou osobnosťou na celý život. Carol I. Vyjadril som určité znepokojenie nad tým, akým smerom sa uberá osobný rozvoj princa Carol. Jeho jediným vážnym záujmom bolo zbieranie známok a mladý princ trávil neprimerane veľa času pitím, párty a honami za ženami, kým mu bolo 19 rokov, splodil najmenej dve nemanželské deti tínedžerskej školáčky Márie Martini. je obľúbený medzi klebetníkmi z celého sveta kvôli častým fotografiám, ktoré sa objavili v novinách a ukazovali ho na rôznych večierkoch, v jednej ruke držal drink a v druhej ženu. Aby princ naučil princa hodnoty pruských cností, nechal ho kráľ v roku 1913 poveriť dôstojníkom v pruskom gardovom pluku. Jeho pôsobenie v 1. pruskom gardovom pluku nedosahovalo požadované výsledky a Carol zostala „playboyom“ princ “. V novembri 1914 sa Carol pripojila k rumunskému senátu v súlade s ustanoveniami rumunskej ústavy z roku 1866, ktorá mu po dosiahnutí dospelosti zaručovala miesto v senáte.


Sólo ako spevák: & aposTapestry & apos

Napriek svojmu prvému sólovému úsiliu Spisovateľ, by sa ukázala ako busta, jej druhý album, GobelínVydaná v roku 1971, by sa držala na 1. mieste rebríčka Billboard rekordných 15 týždňov a v nejakej forme sa udržala v hitparádach úžasných šesť rokov. Gobelín zostal najdlhšie držaným albumom na prvom mieste, kým ho nakoniec neprekonal Michael Jackson & aposs Thriller v roku 1982. Ako povedala kolegyňa a skladateľka Cynthia Weil: „Carole jej hovorila z duše a zhodou okolností bola v súlade s masovou psychikou. Ľudia hľadali správu a ona k nim prišla so správou, ktorú presne hľadali. & Quot Niektoré z hitov od Gobelín boli skoršie Kingove skladby kultivované vlastným hlasom, ako napríklad „It & aposs Too Late“ a „Will Will Love Me Tomorrow?“ Tiež pridala niekoľko nových singlov: „Tak ďaleko,“ „Pociťuj pohyb zeme“ a „Ty máš apoštol priateľa“ (neskôr č. 1 hit pre jej priateľa Jamesa Taylora).

Jej ďalší album, Hudba (1971), dosiahol číslo 1 v kategórii „Sweet Seasons“ a dosiahol zlato, ale nedokázal dosiahnuť prudký nárast a predaj svojho predchodcu. King & aposs niekoľko ďalších albumov, Riekanky a dôvody, Omotajte okolo radosti, Fantázia  a Čistokrvný, boli tiež certifikovaným zlatom. S Čistokrvný, dala sa znova dohromady s bývalým manželom Goffinom a spolupracovala s Taylor, Davidom Crosbym a Grahamom Nashom.

Jej manželstvo s Larkeyom trvalo až do ich rozvodu v roku 1976. Onedlho potom vstúpila do tretieho manželstva so skladateľom Rickom Eversom, v roku 1977. Sťahovali sa do Idaha a žili v malom horskom meste, ktoré pestovalo Kingovu lásku k prírode a inšpirovalo životné prostredie. aktivizmus, ktorý by formoval jej život v nasledujúcich desaťročiach. Napriek tomu, že spolupracovali na albume ਊlbum  Jednoduché veci, ktorá by patrila medzi certifikované zlato spoločnosti King & aposs ako posledného, ​​vzťah stroskotal, pretože Evers bol stále viac zneužívajúci. Únia sa skončila, keď v roku 1978 zomrel na predávkovanie drogami.

King & aposs ďalšie dve vydania, Vitaj doma  a Dotkni sa oblohy,   neboli prijaté tak dobre ako predchádzajúce diely. Väčší komerčný úspech dosiahla v roku 1980 s  Perly, ktorý obsahoval predstavenia predchádzajúcich piesní spoluautorských diel s Goffinom. Neskôr Kingová písala hlavne single pre filmových, televíznych a iných umelcov, čím účinne ukončila svoju kariéru speváčky na niekoľko rokov.


“Goffin a kráľ” Láska a hudba#038: 50. až 2010

V ére päťdesiatych až šesťdesiatych rokov minulého storočia Carole King a Gerry Goffin, na obrázku nižšie, spolu tvorili krásnu hudbu, a to ako v milostnom vzťahu, tak aj pre milióny ľudí, ktorí počúvali piesne, ktoré napísali. V mladosti sa stali jedným z najkreatívnejších a najproduktívnejších tímov skladateľov v Amerike. Sláva sa preslávila prácou pre legendárneho vydavateľa piesní New York City / Brill Building, Aldon Music. Ich príbeh je jedným z veľkých úspechov, aj keď sa ich dotýka osobný smútok, láska je neodpustiteľná a skalnaté cesty pred nimi každým. Nasleduje časť histórie a kultúrneho kontextu.


1959: Na fotografii, ktorá naznačuje nádych mladistvej dôvery, sa mladí milenci Carole King & amp. Gerry Goffin chystajú zasiahnuť do veľkého obdobia so sériou popových hitov. Ich zväzok by však neprežil húfy drogových a zábavných pokušení zo šesťdesiatych rokov minulého storočia.

Gerry Goffin a Carole King sa narodili a vyrastali v mestských častiach New York City. Gerry sa narodil v Brooklyne, ale neskôr sa presťahoval do Queensu po tom, čo sa jeho rodičia rozviedli, keď mal päť. Carole Klein - neskôr na strednej škole prijala meno Carole King - sa narodila na Manhattane, dcéra požiarnika a školského učiteľa. V mladosti ju vychovávala Brooklyn a učila ju hrať na klavíri. Ako chlapec bol Gerry doma vystavený hudbe a v detstve tiež „hral hru so slovami v mojej hlave“, aj keď bez hudby, čím predznamenával talent, ktorý by mu o niekoľko rokov neskôr dobre slúžil. Po ukončení strednej školy technickej v Brooklyne sa Gerry zapísal do rezervácie námorných síl. Potom strávil rok na Americkej námornej akadémii, trieda 1961, ale odstúpil z námorníctva, aby študoval chémiu na Queens College.


Gerry & amp Carole pracovali v začiatkoch v Aldon Music.


1959: Carole King a spevák Johnny Restivo medzitým absolvujú nahrávacie štúdio v New Yorku.


1959, New York: Carole King, Paul Simon a Gerry Goffin počúvajú hudbu, na ktorej pracovali.


Začiatok šesťdesiatych rokov minulého storočia. Carole King za klavírom, za ňou ďalší autori piesní Brill Building Barry Mann a Cynthia Weil a manžel/partner Gerry Goffin úplne vpravo.


Carole King & amp. Gerry Goffin, o niečo neskôr v šesťdesiatych rokoch minulého storočia.

Carole chodila na verejnú strednú školu v Brooklyne a ako tínedžerka navštevovala rock'n'rollové šou Alana Freeda Paramount Theatre v New Yorku, kam ju presťahovala hudba a interpreti. Na strednej škole krátko založila kapelu a so svojim priateľom Paulom Simonom natočila demo nahrávky. Carole predala svoju prvú skladbu na Manhattane za 25 dolárov, keď mala 16 rokov. V roku 1958 sa však Carole King stretla s Gerrym Goffinom na Queens College.

“Zaujímalo ju písanie rocku ’n ’roll a mňa zaujímalo napísať túto hru na Broadwayi [muzikál o beatnikoch], a#8221 Goffin by neskôr spomínal na Vanity Fair. “Tak sme sa dohodli, že by napísala [hudbu] k hre, ak by som napísal [texty] k niektorým z jej rockových a#8216n melódií … “Gerry nakoniec od svojej hry upustil, pretože sa dvojica rozhodla zamerajte sa na písanie melódií rock ‘n roll. A po ceste sa do seba zamilovali.

Neil Sedaka, ktorý chodil s Kingom na strednej škole, mal v roku 1959 úspešnú pieseň s názvom “Oh! Carol. ” Goffin zobral melódiu a napísal na ňu hravú odpoveď s názvom “Oh! Neil, ”, ktoré King nahral a vydal ako singel. Ona a Gerry k tomuto singlu napísali aj skladbu B, ale ani jedna pieseň nemala úspech.

Ich osobný vzťah však silnel. V auguste 1959 sa Carole a Gerry vzali na židovskom obrade na Long Islande po tom, čo Carol otehotnela. On mal 20 a ona 17. Obaja opustili vysokú školu a nastúpili na dennú prácu Goffina, ktorý pracoval ako asistent chemika a King ako sekretárka. Večer spolu písali piesne.

Bolo to vtedy, keď ich Don Kirshner v Aldon Music na Manhattane najal oboch na profesionálne písanie piesní. Pracoval tam aj Carolein priateľ Neil Sedaka.

Carole neskôr povedala a New York Times reportér o tom, ako pracovali v Aldon Music:

"…Každý sme mali malú kockovú dieru s dostatkom miesta na klavír, lavičku a možno aj stoličku pre textára - ak ste mali šťastie." Sedíte a píšete a v ďalšej kubickej diere ste mohli počuť, ako niekto skladá pieseň presne takú, ako je vaša …

"Tlak … bol skutočne úžasný, pretože Donny [Kirshner z Aldonu] by hral jedného skladateľa proti druhému. Povedal „Potrebujeme najnovší hit“ a všetci sa vrátime a napíšeme pieseň a nasledujúci deň sa zúčastníme každého konkurzu na producenta Bobbyho Veea. ‘Take Good Care of My Baby,‘ jeden z našich najväčších hitov, vznikol týmto spôsobom. “

Gerry a Carole pôvodne spolupracovali s inými skladateľmi a spisovateľmi. A v jednom prípade by nadviazali dlhotrvajúce priateľstvo, aj keď konkurenti v skladaní piesní, s Barrym Mannom a Cynthiou Weilovou, ďalším tímom manželov v Aldone.

Netrvalo dlho a Carole King a Gerry Goffin sa čoskoro etablovali ako úspešný tím, ona tvorila hudbu a on texty. Ich veľký zlom nastal v piesni z roku 1960 “Budeš ma milovať zajtra? ” Bolo to v roku 1960, krátko potom, čo sa páru narodilo prvé dieťa. Potom mali sídlo v Aldon Music na Broadwayi 1650 oproti známej Brill Building a pracovali aj doma.

Making the Hit

Ako by si Carole neskôr vo svojej knihe spomenula, Prirodzená žena„V tom čase boli najhorúcejšou dievčenskou skupinou v krajine Shirelles, štyri čierne tínedžerky, ktoré len pár rokov odchádzali z Passaic High School v New Jersey - Shirley Owens, Doris Coley, Addie Harris a Beverly Lee. Práve vypukli s úspešnou piesňou „Tonight’s The Night“. Don Kirshner a Aldon Music chceli nasledujúcu pieseň k tomuto hitu, nech je akýkoľvek, a tlačil na svojich spisovateľov a skladateľov, aby na to prišli.

Carole King začala pracovať na klavíri na hudbe a melódii a ako predlohu použila skladbu „There Goes My Baby“. Čoskoro vypracovala hrubé demo. Keď však Shirelles prvýkrát počuli Caroleho demo, zistili, že to znie ako pieseň krajiny a západu, “a nepáčilo sa im to. Navrhla sa teda časť sláčikov pre pieseň, ktorú Carole potom plánovala začleniť do svojej melódie. Pokiaľ ide o usporiadanie strún, Carole neskôr vo svojej knihe uznala, že to bola jej prvá: „Nikdy predtým som neskladala aranžmán.“

„Budeš ma milovať ”
Zajtra? "

Shirelles
1960-61

Dnes v noci ste úplne moji
Lásku ti dávaš tak sladko
Dnes večer je svetlo lásky vo vašich očiach
Ale budeš ma milovať zajtra?

Je to trvalý poklad?
Alebo len chvíľku potešenia?
Môžem uveriť kúzlu vašich vzdychov?
Budeš ma stále milovať aj zajtra?

Dnes večer s nevyslovenými slovami
Hovoríte, že som jediný
Ale či bude moje srdce zlomené
Keď sa noc stretne s ranným slnkom?

Rád by som vedel, že tvoja láska
Je to láska, ktorou si môžem byť istý
Tak mi to teraz povedzte a ja sa už nič nepýtam
Budeš ma stále milovať aj zajtra?

Jedného rána, keď vysadila svoju dcéru u svojej babičky, King odcestoval do kancelárií a štúdia vydavateľstva Shirelles Scepter Records. Tam nahrala stopu rytmu, ktorá netrvala ani hodinu.

"… Potom prišli hráči na sláčiky, a#8221 ona neskôr prerozprávala vo svojej knihe." „Keď som prvýkrát počul violončelo hrať rytmickú figúru na začiatku piesne„ Will You Love Me Tomorrow “, bol som v eufórii. Niektorí skladatelia doslova počúvajú zvuky v hlave, keď píšu, musel som počkať na zasadnutie, aby som počul, čo som napísal. Keď hudobníci začali hrať časti, ktoré som napísal pre ‘Will You Love Me Tomorrow, ’, začal som z toho vzrušiť. Mal som 18. "

Slová pre túto pieseň však boli tiež kľúčové - a to bolo Gerryho oddelenie. Goffin sa vrátil domov z nočného bowlingu so svojimi kamarátmi, aby našiel na kazetovom magnetofóne správu od Carole a požiadal ho, aby napísal texty k hudbe, ktorú zložila pre Shirelles, pretože Don Kershner bol horúci a zamkol melódiu. Goffin neskôr povedal, že texty k nemu prišli ľahko.

Hiram Lee, ktorý o niekoľko rokov neskôr píše o Goffinovom-Kingovom efekte v tejto piesni, poznamenáva:

… Zdá sa, že na tejto popovej klasike Kingova krehká melódia nervózne stúpa z akordového lôžka, akoby kládla otázku, ktorú sa bojí položiť. K tomu Goffinove texty dodávajú: „Dnes v noci ste úplne vy/#8217re/Tvoja láska je taká milá/Dnes večer je svetlo lásky v tvojich očiach/Ale budeš ma milovať zajtra?“

Ako to už často bývalo, zdá sa, že Goffinove slová sa spájajú tak presne s Kingovou melodickou linkou, že bolo ťažké si predstaviť, že by boli tieto dve piesne napísané oddelene.

Iní by sa však čudovali, ako muž Gerry dokáže preniknúť do ženských myšlienok a emócií a vyjadriť jej pocity tak, ako to urobil v tejto piesni, a bude to robiť aj v ďalších piesňach, ktoré prídu. Ako bývalej Shirelle Beverely Lee v máji 2018 ponúkla text piesne „Will-You-Love-Me-Tomorrow“ New Yorker príbeh:

„Teraz, keď som starší, počúvam texty. Vedieť, čo sa deje - ako ženy máte právo sa opýtať: Budeš ma stále milovať, ak som tvoj milovaný? Budeš ma momentálne len tak milovať a opustiť ma? Je to trvalý poklad alebo len chvíľkové potešenie? Môžem čítať kúzlo tvojich vzdychov? Budeš ma zajtra milovať? To hovorí za všetko. Budeš so mnou skutočne, alebo sa so mnou a mojimi emóciami len hráš? Čo pre teba mám hodnotu? To sa hovorí. "

Keď sa stretol konečný balík Goffin-King pre „Will You Love Me Tomorrow“, mali nasledujúcu akciu, ktorú chcel Kirshner, a potom niektorých. “ …Zajtra ” sa stal obrovským hitom a dosiahol číslo 1 v rebríčku Billboard Hot 100 v januári 1961 - prvá pieseň ženskej skupiny, ktorá sa dostala na prvé miesto v popových rebríčkoch od sestier McGuireových v roku 1958, a vôbec prvá pre černošskú skupinu.

„Zbohom, práca!“

Gerry a Carole, mladý manželský pár, ktorý vtedy žil v brooklynskom byte v suteréne, stále pracovali počas práce na inom dni, kým písali svoju hudbu. Ale hitový záznam, ktorý práve zložili, to všetko zmení, ako si Carole spomenula: „Kedy sa„ Will You Love Me Tomorrow? “Predalo milión [kópií], išli sme:„ Ahoj, bye-bye day job! ““ Gerry Goffin si na to spomenul deň, pretože stále pracoval vo svojej chemickej spoločnosti: „Carole a [Don Kirshner z Aldon Music] prišli do Donnyho limuzíny v chemickej továrni a povedali mi, že už nemusím pracovať. A dal nám zálohu 10 000 dolárov, dostali sme kreditné karty a odvtedy som už nikdy nemusel robiť poctivú prácu. “


Neskôr fotografia z roku 1963 k úspešnej piesni „The Loco-Motion“ zľava: Producent Aldon Music, skladateľ Al Nevins, Carole King, speváčka, skladateľka Little Eva Boyd, Gerry Goffin a producent Aldon Music, Don Kirshner. Kliknutím navštívite príbeh „Loco-Motion“.

Shirellesov hit bol zlomovým bodom partnerstva Goffin-King-a ďalšie hity stále prichádzali. V roku 1961 urobili pieseň „Take Good Care of My Baby“, hit číslo 1 pre speváka Bobbyho Veeho a pieseň “Some Kind of Wonderful. Potom prišiel „The Loco-Motion“ v roku 1962, ďalší hit číslo 1 s ich bývalou opatrovateľkou Evou Boydovou, z ktorej sa stala „malá Eva“. (pozrite si samostatný príbeh na tejto webovej stránke o histórii a úspechu tejto piesne). Tiež napísali a zložili „Up On The Roof“ v roku 1962, hit č. 5 pre The Drifters.


Fotografia rastúcej rodiny Goffin-Kingovcov zo začiatku šesťdesiatych rokov minulého storočia.

Carole a Gerry mali v tom čase dve malé deti a Carole nemala záujem cestovať, aby pieseň propagovala. Kirshner a Gerry ju však presvedčili, aby sa objavila vo filme Dicka Clarka a#8217s Americký stojan, kde pieseň predviedla v režime lyp-sync, ako to tam bolo zvykom, ale získala nízke skóre v a Bandstand Relácia „rate-a-record“.

Pieseň napriek tomu vyvrcholila na 22. mieste rebríčka Billboard grafoch v septembri 1962 a taktiež sa zvýšil na 3. miesto v britských rebríčkoch. Podľa niektorých správ však Carole v tomto bode odradila od toho, aby sama robila ďalšie nahrávky, Gerry, ktorá dala prednosť tomu, aby sa zamerala na skladaciu časť ich partnerstva. A podľa samotnej Carole jej potom chýbala dôvera v písanie textov. Ale to by sa zmenilo.

Hudba Goffin-King
Ukážka najlepších 40 hitov, 60. roky minulého storočia

V priebehu niekoľkých nasledujúcich rokov, v polovici a na konci šesťdesiatych rokov minulého storočia, prišli ďalšie hity pre Gerryho Goffina a Carole Kinga, vrátane ďalších hitov č. 1 a ďalších, ktoré sa umiestnili v prvej desiatke a prvej štyridsiatke. Celkovo medzi rokmi 1960 a 1968, tím Goffin-King by napísal spolu viac ako 50 najlepších 40 hitov-medzi tými, ktoré ešte neboli spomenuté: „Crying in the Rain“, „Some Kind of Wonderful“, „Take Good Care of My Baby“, „Pleasant Valley Sunday“ „Prirodzená žena“ a ďalšie.

Na začiatku šesťdesiatych rokov minulého storočia mali obzvlášť šťastie, že skupina čiernych dievčat znela víťazne. Medzi tieto úspechy dievčenskej skupiny patrili The Cookies, ktoré vtedy tvorili Dorothy Jones, Earl-Jean McCrea a Margaret Ross. V roku 1962 mali súbory cookie top 20 hit s piesňou Goffina-Kinga „Chains“.

Druhý o niečo väčší hit zaznamenali v roku 1963 piesňou Goffin-King, “Don ’t Say Nothin ’ Bad (About My Baby) ”, ktorá vyvrcholila na 3. mieste rebríčka Billboard Graf R & ampB a č. 7 na Billboard popový graf. Ale práve predchádzajúci hit „Cookies“ “Chains ” priniesol skupine a Goffin-Kingovi nečakanú pozornosť.

The Beatles, ktorí vtedy prichádzali na hudobnú scénu vo veľkom, pokryli “Chains ” pre svoje prvé britské LP. Beatles to nahrali 11. februára 1963 a vydali na svojom debutovom albume Prosím poteš ma, 22. marca 1963. John Lennon v skutočnosti citoval, že o tomto čase hovorí, že chce, aby sa Paul McCartney a on sám stali “golfovým kráľom Anglicka. ” To pomohlo poskytnúť tímu skladateľov Goffin-King viac Všimnite si to a dopyt po ich talente sa zvýšil.

Gerry Goffin medzitým vyrazil na cestu s The Cookies a nechal Carole doma s dvoma deťmi. A onedlho mal pomer s jedným z cookies, Earl-Jean McCrea.

Začiatkom roku 1964 bolo zrejmé, že Earl-Jean je tehotná a Gerry bol otcom. Dieťa sa narodilo v júli 1964. Gerry bol nepokojný a znepokojený a Carole povedal o svojich rozlúčkach, pretože jej nechcel klamať. Ale aféra s McCreaom bola znakom budúcich problémov.

Ako neskôr vysvetlí Gerry v a Vanity Fair rozhovor: „Chcel som byť hipisákom - nechal som si narásť dlhé vlasy - a Carole to urobila skromne … A potom som začal brať LSD a mezkalín. A s Carole sme sa začali rozchádzať, pretože cítila, že si musí veci hovoriť sama. Musela byť jej vlastnou textárkou. ”

McCrea medzitým opustí súbory cookie a podpíše sa s nahrávacou spoločnosťou Colpix, kde nahrala pieseň Goffin-King, “I ’m Into Something Good, ”, ktorá zasiahla číslo 38. Billboard Hot 100 v roku 1964. Táto skladba Goffin-King sa však v tom istom roku stala väčším hitom Veľkej Británie č. 1 pre britskú skupinu Herman’s Hermits.

Suburban Angst

V polovici šesťdesiatych rokov minulého storočia pokračovalo skladanie piesní Goffina-Kinga, aj keď bolo vzhľadom na ich osobné pomery dosť namáhavé, ale stále zostali spolu ako pár. K tomuto napätiu nepochybne prispel aj presun, ktorý urobili v roku 1965 na predmestie New Jersey vo West Orange. Carole chcela urobiť tento krok, ale teraz to malo ďalšiu komplikáciu. S finančnou pomocou odmien za písanie piesní Goffina-Kinga by sa Earl-Jean McCrea presťahovala do blízkeho domu na rovnakom predmestí.

"Príjemné údolie."
Nedeľa ”

The Monkees: 1967

Miestna rocková skupina na ulici
Snaží sa naučiť ich pieseň
Serenádovali víkendového panoša
Kto práve vyšiel kosiť trávnik

Ďalšia príjemná údolná nedeľa
Všade horí drevené uhlie
Riadky domov, ktoré sú všetky rovnaké
A zdá sa, že to nikoho nezaujíma

Pozrite sa na pani Greyovú, ktorá je dnes hrdá
Pretože jej ruže kvitnú
A pán Green, je taký pokojný
Má televíziu v každej miestnosti

Ďalšia príjemná údolná nedeľa
Tu v Status Symbol Land
Matky sa sťažujú
aký je život ťažký
A deti tomu jednoducho nerozumejú

Ciele pohodlia tvorov,
iba otupujú moju dušu
A aby mi to bolo ťažké vidieť
Ach, zdá sa, že všetky myšlienky zablúdia
do vzdialených miest
Potrebujem zmenu scenérie

Ta ta ta ta, ta ta ta ta
Ta ta ta ta, ta ta ta ta

Ďalšia príjemná údolná nedeľa
Všade horiace uhlie
Another pleasant valley Sunday
Here in Status Symbol Land

Meanwhile, Gerry was not a big fan of the suburbs to begin with, and this would be revealed in the lyrics he wrote for the 1967 song that he and Carole composed for The Monkees – “Pleasant Valley Sunday”, a No. 3 hit in July 1967. The song was pure satire and social commentary on life in suburbia. The inspiration for the song’s title, in fact, derived from a street in West Orange near to where Gerry and Carole were living, named Pleasant Valley Way.

At the time Goffin and King wrote “Pleasant Valley Sunday,” suburbia was already topical, with a growing collection of popular books and academic literature, some critical, some not.

Also in music at that time, there was the 1962 song, “Little Boxes,” written and composed by folk singer-songwriter-activist Malvina Reynolds, a song noted for its line mocking the sameness of suburban tract housing as “little boxes” made of “ticky-tacky.” That song became a 1963 hit for folk singer Pete Seeger.

In any case, Goffin and King’s “Pleasant Valley Sunday” captured a bit of the critical vibe at the time for suburbia in the 1960s. The song stayed in the Top 40 for most of that summer and was also featured during the Monkees’ television series that year.

Gerry, meanwhile, was feeling especially isolated in suburbia and was having bigger problems. He was taking LSD and dealing with a crumbling marriage. King would later write in her book that Goffin suffered from mental illness following his use of LSD. He would be diagnosed with manic depression, and was hospitalized for a time. He eventually underwent treatment with lithium and electroshock therapy. He and King would separate in 1967 and divorce in 1968.

Goffin and King, like the rest of America, had gone through some perilous times in the 1961-67 period. The country was still digesting the November 1963 assassination of its promising young president, John F. Kennedy. A certain innocence had died then as well. A rising civil rights struggle was then underway: the Freedom Rides (1961), the March on Washington (1963) and the “Bloody Sunday” beatings of marchers in Selma, Alabama (1965) had all occurred, among others. Anti-Vietnam War sentiment was increasing at home as U.S. troop levels rose and more Americans were being killed. On the music scene, in addition to the Beatles arrival in 1964 and the subsequent “British invasion,” there was also competition from Berry Gordy’s Motown music center in Detroit, as well as the onset of new folk and protest music. Bob Dylan, who had begun performing in Greenwich Village clubs in 1961, released his first album with Columbia in March 1962. And finally, Don Kirchner sold Aldon Music to Columbia Screen Gems in 1963 for $3 million and had begun packaging his songwriters’ music under the new ownership for use in TV, film, and Hollywood – of which the Monkees were one example.

Hit for Aretha

Still, in the midst of the cultural changes and industry upheaval, and the Goffin-King personal struggles, the pair would manage a few more hit songs. One of these is perhaps Gerry Goffin’s tour de force — “A Natural Woman,” or more correctly, “You Make Me Feel Like a Natural Woman.”

The song became a classic 1967 hit for Aretha Franklin. It’s about a woman who is somewhat down and out, doubting herself, until a new love appears to lift her to a new beginning.

Although written by Goffin and King, the song’s title at least was inspired by Atlantic Records co-owner and producer Jerry Wexler. As recounted in his autobiography, Wexler, a student of African-American musical culture, had been mulling over the concept of the “natural man,” when he drove by Carole King on a New York sidewalk, shouting out to her that he wanted a “natural woman” song for Aretha Franklin’s next album. Goffin and King delivered in short order – and they would also give Wexler a co-writing credit for his part in their song.

“…A Natural Woman”
Aretha Franklinová
1967

Looking out on the morning rain
I used to feel so uninspired
And when I knew I had to face another day
Lord, it made me feel so tired
Before the day I met you, life was so unkind
But your the key to my peace of mind

‘Cause you make me feel,
You make me feel,
You make me feel like
A natural woman

When my soul was in the lost and found
You came along to claim it
I didn’t know just what was wrong with me
Till your kiss helped me name it
Now I’m no longer doubtful of what I’m living for
And if I make you happy I don’t need to do more

‘Cause you make me feel,
You make me feel,
You make me feel like a natural woman

Oh, baby, what you’ve done to me
You make me feel so good inside
And I just want to be, close to you
You make me feel so alive

You make me feel,
You make me feel,
You make me feel like a natural woman

You make me feel
You make me feel
You make me feel like a natural woman

You make me feel
You make me feel
_______________________

Yet the lyrics that Goffin would write for this song – powerfully delivered in performance by Aretha Franklin (and a few years later, also by Carole King) – continue to amaze critics to this day for Goffin’s ability to plumb the depths of female emotion. Goffin’s daughter for one, Sherry, herself a musician, would say on camera during a 2017 TV special, that lines from that song, such as – “When my soul was in the lost and found / You came along to claim it,” among others – were pretty amazing. Gerry Goffin had a gift that way.

“…Natural Woman” is also about spiritual satisfaction from the female perspective: “Oh, baby, what you’ve done to me / You make me feel so good inside.”

The Aretha Franklin version of the song was released in September 1967 and would peak at No. 8 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, and No. 2 on the Billboard R & B graf

Yet, within a year of this single reaching the U.S. Top 10, the Goffin-King partnership was over. Both Carole and Gerry would move to California, where their careers would take new turns.

Carole’s Rise

Carole King’s move to Laurel Canyon in Los Angeles – then a haven for up-and-coming singer-songwriters – would prove beneficial, but not right away. Earlier, she had met James Taylor, who had encouraged her to begin solo recording and performing.

After a false start or two, and a middling debut album, Spisovateľ, King would find her footing in a big way in 1971 with her second solo album, Gobelín. That album proved to be a blockbuster, topping the U.S. album chart for 15 weeks and remaining on the charts for more than six years. Gobelín first charged onto the charts April 10, 1971, staying there for 302 consecutive weeks until January 15, 1977. Then it returned to the chart twice — in 2010 and 2016. Tapestry’s record was finally eclipsed by Adele’s album, 21, which logged its 319th week on the Billboard 200 album chart dated April 15, 2017.

Carole King proved herself a capable lyricist on Gobelín, crafting a series of new songs for the album, including: “So Far Away,” “I Feel the Earth Move,” “You’ve Got a Friend.” and “It’s Too Late,” this last song, a Billboard No.1 hit. She would even garner praise from former partner Gerry Goffin for the album: “It was completely original, and Carole really showed me up as a lyricist….”


A portion of the cover art from Carole King's 1971 album, 'Tapestry," with Carole & cat in view. Click for Amazon link.

King reinterpreted these older Goffin-King tunes in her own style and voice. Her rendition of “Will You Love Me Tomorrow?,” for example, is far sadder and perhaps a bit wiser than the Shirelles’ version. Or as another observer put it, the slower version showed that the lyrics worked just as poignantly for a housewife stuck in an unstable marriage as they did for an innocent teenager pondering her first love. Delivery and performance of this song matters as well, as historian and writer Kirk Silsbee has observed: “The Shirelles sang ‘Will You Love Me Tomorrow’ like girls. Carole sang it as a woman” — each, however, appropriate for their times.

Women of all ages flocked to Gobelín. The mix of material King used on Gobelín struck a chord with women all over the world.

“Carole spoke from her heart, and she happened to be in tune with the mass psyche,” said her old Brill Building friend and fellow songwriter, Cynthia Weil. “People were looking for a message, and she came to them with… exactly what they were looking for.” Gobelín sold more than 15 million copies over the decades and became a critical influence on other artists.

The album also garnered four Grammy Awards for King: Album of the Year Song of the Year (“You’ve Got a Friend”) Record of the Year (“It’s Too Late,” lyrics by Toni Stern) and Best Pop Vocal Performance, Female. Gobelín would help propel King to becoming one of America’s most beloved singer/songwriters.

Following Gobelín, Carole King had an incredible run of additional hit albums in the 1970s: Hudba (No. 1, Dec 1971) Rhymes and Reasons (No. 2, Nov 1972) Fantázia (No. 6, June 1973) Wrap Around Joy (No. 1, Sept 1974) Thoroughbred (No. 3, 1976 ) and Simple Things (No. 17, July 1977). Along the way, there was also touring, and a few notable homecomings, among these, her Carnegie Hall Concert of June 18, 1971, which was her first concert performance in front of an audience, and a free concert she gave in Central Park on May 26, 1973 made the front page of the next day’s Sunday New York Times with the headline: “Carole King Draws 70,000 to Central Park.”


King’s 2nd album of 1971, “Music,” released Dec 9th, entered the charts at No. 8, reportedly selling 1.3 million copies the first day of its release, reaching No. 1 on Jan 1, 1972. Click for CD.

By virtue of her 1970s success, Carole King was becoming a wealthy woman. Gobelín alone yielded an estimated $10.7 million in earnings in 1971. She also had estimated earnings of $500,000 or more per album for the albums she produced in 1972, 1973, 1974, 1976 and 1977.

And over the next 30 years, there would be additional income generated by her continuing work, as well as a healthy stream of songwriting royalties from the Goffin-King back-catalog.

But during the late 1970s, King would move to Idaho and later buy a 128-acre ranch there, inspiring her environmental activism, including testimony some years later in Congress for protecting the northern Rocky Mountains ecosystem. King would also own other real estate, including a Hollywood Hills West home and an ocean-side home in Malibu, California, the latter acquired in 2003 for $1 million.

However, in her personal relationships following Gerry, Carole King traveled a difficult road. A second marriage to bass-player Charlie Larkey, with whom she had two children, would end after some years in 1976. Her third husband, musician Rick Evers, reported by Carole to have been abusive, died of a heroin overdose in 1978. A fourth marriage to Idaho rancher Rick Sorenson would end in divorce in 1989. Some who have written about King’s life, speculate that part of the reason for her failed relationships lay in her successive husbands’ failures to accept her achievements and celebrity.


One version of a release from Gerry Coffin's 1973 album, "It Ain't Exactly Entertainment'.

Gerry Goffin, meanwhile, had continued success in his music career as well, though not on the scale that Carole King had. In 1973, he tried his hand at recording with a solo album, It Ain’t Exactly Entertainment, but it was not successful. This album was part social protest, as Goffin, an admirer of Bob Dylan, was feeling the social and political turmoil of those times. One of the songs on the album, “Honorable Peace,” was an anti-war song, aimed at the Vietnam War, by then a major point of social unrest.

But in the music business, songwriting collaboration was still Gerry Goffin’s strong suit, as he had collaborated with other songwriters in addition to Carole from his earliest years. And now he continued to do so, with partners such as Barry Mann, Jack Keller, Russ Titelman, Wes Farrell, Barry Goldberg and Michael Masser.

In 1975, Goffin and Michael Masser earned an Academy Award nomination for the “Theme From Mahagón (Do You Know Where You’re Going To?),” a No. 1 hit for Diana Ross from that movie. Goffin and Masser also received a Golden Globe nomination for “So Sad the Song,” from the 1976 Gladys Knight film, Pipe Dreams. They also wrote “Tonight, I Celebrate My Love” a 1983 duet hit by Peabo Bryson and Roberta Flack. In 1985, the Goffin-Masser R&B ballad, “Saving All My Love for You,” became Whitney Houston’s first No. 1 hit and Grammy winner. And in 1989, the Goffin/Masser/Preston Glass tune, “Miss You Like Crazy,” became a major hit for Natalie Cole, reaching No 7 of the Billboard chart, and No. 1 on both the R&B and adult contemporary charts, as well as No. 2 on the U.K. singles chart.


March 1987. Gerry Goffin and Carole King at their induction into the Songwriters Hall of Fame.

As Carole King and Gerry Goffin made their way through their respective separate careers, there was no escaping their earlier joint successes and history together – with all its glories and perhaps a few regrets. They had etched themselves into the American cultural tableau with their music making, and it was not letting go. If anything, their joint body of work was burnishing itself into rock music history more permanently.

By the mid-1980s, the legacy of their earlier Brill Building work, now more than 20 years old, was faring well with the test of time and in the judgement of their peers. In March 1987, Gerry and Carole were among those lauded for their work, along with seven others – including their former Brill Building colleagues, Barry Mann and Cynthia Weil – who were inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame, an arm of the National Academy of Popular Music. Three years later, in 1990, they were again jointly honored for their songwriting, this time inducted into the Rock ’n Roll Hall of Fame.


1990: Carole King and Gerry Goffin at their Rock 'n Roll Hall of Fame induction.

As songwriters, Gerry and Carole stand as a great bridge between the Brill Building styles of the late 1950s and the early 1960s and the modern rock era. And the fact is, they started looking forward with their very first hit. In 1961, they wrote a little song called “Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow?” It was the first great ‘60s record to be written from a woman’s point of view. It was a first great ballad directed toward a new generation that would soon be labeled “baby boomers.” And for some of the people in this very room, it was the first song they slow-danced too, made out too, and made love to. It was perhaps the first 󈨀s song about which you and your girlfriend or boyfriend said, “that’s our song.” And by the way, because it meant so much to so many, it is a song and a record – beautifully sung by the Shirelles – that will live on well into the next century. In 1962, the Drifters recorded their sublime “Up on the Roof,” a song that expressed the sensibility that a few years later would be called “60s idealism.” And in 1963 Gerry and Carole extended that idealism with a romantically eloquent “One Fine Day.” And then in 1965 they put themselves at the center of one of rock’s most vital developments – the Phil Spector-Righteous Brothers collaborations. One of the two songs they wrote with Phil was the classic, “Just Once in My Life,” and the other, is one of those great lost masterpieces due for rediscovery in the 1990s, a great song called “Hung on You.” By the time they wrote “Don’t Bring Me Down” for the Animals and “Goin Back” for the Byrds they helped to start an approach that would effect every sing-songwriter to come after them. And in a nice epiphany, in 1967, they closed a cycle they began with “Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow?,” when they wrote, “You Make Me Feel Like A Natural Woman” for Aretha Franklin. But by then, they had given us more that we could ever give back… Gerry Goffin and Carole King – two of rock’s great writers!


Gerry Goffin's "Back Room Blood" album of 1996, motivated by a conservative wave in Congress, with some Dylan input, but not successful. Click for CD.

Later Careers

Goffin and King, meanwhile, continued their careers through the 1990s and beyond. In 1996, Goffin co-wrote three songs for the soundtrack to Grace of My Heart, a film with a principal character modeled on Carole King.

That year, Goffin also took another stab at solo recording, releasing the album Back Room Blood, inspired by his politics and anger over conservative gains in the 1994 congressional elections. The album was mostly co-written with Barry Goldberg, but included two songs co-written with Bob Dylan.

At the time, Goffin also told a reporter at Billboard magazine: “I depend mostly on my back catalog… Actually, I could afford to retire, but I would go crazy…” Compositions from Goffin’s catalog at the time, in fact, appeared on the Beatles’ Live At The BBC album (1994), the Forest Gump film soundtrack (1994), and Carole King’s Tapesty Revisited album (1995).

Gerry Goffin, however, was also still dealing with his past marriage to Carole King, noting in one 1996 interview with United Press International: “Carole loved me for what I was… I’ve had a lot of guilt [over his role in that marriage]. It’s been almost 30 years, and I’m finally feeling expurgated…. I feel like I’ve worked it off, but maybe you never work it off.”

Carole King, meanwhile, continued her busy career. In 1992, she wrote and performed the song “Now and Forever,” for the film, A League of Their Own, a song that received a Grammy nomination.

In 1997, she recorded backing vocals for Celine Dion’s song, “The Reason.” In 2001, after an eight-year break from studio recording, she released the album, Love Makes the World.

Another album, The Living Room Tour, was released in 2005, consisting mostly of live versions of her Gobelín piesne. This album debuted at No. 17 in the U.S., becoming King’s highest-charting album since 1977, spurred, in part, by TV ads and Starbucks marketing. For the week of July 18, 2005 it was the No.1 album on Amazon.com.

In 2007 King and James Taylor performed six Troubadour club anniversary shows – as she and Taylor had performed at that famous Los Angeles night club in 1970. These Troubadour shows would inspire the Troubadour Reunion Tour with King and Taylor, which ran globally from March through May 2010, with 58 shows selling more than 700,000 tickets and grossing about $60 million, making it one of that year’s most successful tours. A King-Taylor Live at the Troubadour album was also released, which debuted at No. 4 on Billboard Album Chart tento rok.

In 2012, King published her memoir, A Natural Woman, which became a national bestseller. The next year, she became the fifth recipient and the first woman to receive the Gershwin Prize for popular song from the Library of Congress. President and Mrs. Barack Obama hosted the award concert at the White House on May 22, 2013, with the President presenting the prize and reading the citation.

In February 2013, she received a Grammy Lifetime Achievement award. And in January 2014, a Broadway musical covering her life – including the Goffin years – titled, Beautiful – The Carole King Musical, opened in New York. It would go on to great success, wining two Tony Awards, and after its London run, two Olivier Awards. King had been apprehensive about the show’s dredging up of old, painful history, as it focuses on the Goffin-King love affair, their work at the Brill Building, their marriage, and Goffin’s infidelity. The show ends just as King is enjoying fame for her groundbreaking solo album, Gobelín. While Gerry Goffin’s infidelity and emotional problems are part of the stage production, he did attend the show’s opening in January 2014 at the Stephen Sondheim Theater, though he was not then in the best of health.

Gerry’s Death


Gerry Goffin in February 2004, when the Recording Academy presented he and Carole jointly with a Trustees Award for lifetime achievement.

Carole King said in a statement that Goffin was her “first love” and had a “profound impact” on her life. “Gerry was a good man and a dynamic force, whose words and creative influence will resonate for generations to come …His legacy to me is our two daughters, four grandchildren, and our songs that have touched millions and millions of people, as well as a lifelong friendship.”

Barry Goldberg, composer and pianist who wrote many later songs with Goffin said of him: “Gerry was one of the greatest lyricists of all time and my true soul brother. I was privileged to have had him in my personal and professional life.”

Lawrence Downes of the New York Times noted that when he taught a class on writing for New York Times interns, he used “Will You Love Me Tomorrow?”– and specifically the lyrics from that song – to make a point about brevity and beauty in writing. He used the Goffin-crafted lyrics “to show how it’s possible to convey complicated emotions, deep feeling and intricate meanings with the tiniest and plainest of words.” He explained that “you can be short and sweet” or “short and heartbreaking” – all with economy and good effect, as Gerry Goffin did.

Richard Williams, writing for Strážca newspaper in London, called Goffin “The Poet Laureate of Teenage Pop,” also adding: “…Those who accept the conventional wisdom that nothing happened in pop music between Elvis and the Beatles should listen to these marvelous [Goffin-crafted] records – and to the outpouring of memories of a man who did the best thing a pop songwriter can do: made listeners feel they are not alone with their emotions.”

Richard Corliss, writing a remembrance on Goffin at Čas magazine, adds: “A look at Goffin’s lyrics upends the common wisdom that pre-Beatles adolescent pop was all banal optimism conveyed in moon-June-spoon doggerel….Goffin was eerily in sync with the convulsions kids feel during first love, first sex and first breakup.” Corliss continues that Goffin used “the pop-ballad form to offer hard answers to dewy questions, …often saying that life’s most perplexing riddles had no comforting resolutions …[B]ut Goffin educated young listeners to the complexity of love and loss. He wasn’t just the guy who put simple words to [King’s] lovely music. He was a prime ’60s poet of teen yearning.” By the mid-1970s, however, with the No. 1 hit, “Do You Know Where You’re Going To,” made popular in the Diana Ross film, Mahagón, Corliss explains that Goffin “raised the age bar from fretful teen to disillusioned adult, and the stakes from failed romance to existential chill. ‘Now looking back at all we’ve planned / We let so many dreams just slip through our hands. / Why must we wait so long before we’ll see / How sad the answers to those questions can be?’.”


An album of Carole King’s July 2016 Hyde Park performance of her ‘Tapestry’ songs was released in 2017. Click for CD.

Janelle Monae, James Taylor, Sara Bareilles, Aretha Franklin, and the cast of Beautiful, The Carole King Musical, performed during King’s segment of the awards ceremony.

In February 2016, the PBS TV program, American Masters, featured the profile, “Carole King: Natural Woman,” which included history on the Goffin-King biography and discography.

In July 2016, King was on the top of the bill at the British Summer Time Festival at Hyde Park, London, where she performed all of Gobelín live for the first time. That concert was broadcast on UK TV in October 2016 and in 2017, an album of that concert, Tapestry: Live at Hyde Park, was released.

Goffin-King Legacy


Carole King and Gerry Goffin with Aldon Music owner and creator, Don Kirshner, 1960s.

See also at this website, for example, “Joni’s Music” (Joni Mitchell), “Linda & Jerry” (Linda Ronstadt & Jerrgy Brown), “Streisand Rising” (Barbra Streisand), and “1960s Girl Groups” (includes long sidebar on Brill Building scene). The “Annals of Music” category page offers additional story choices. Thanks for visiting – and if you like what you find here, please make a donation to help support the research and writing at this website. Ďakujem. – Jack Doyle

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Date Posted: 24 May 2018
Last Update: 17 October 2020
Comments to: [email protected]

Article Citation:
Jack Doyle, “Goffin and King, Love & Music: 1950s-2010s,”
PopHistoryDig.com, May 24, 2018.

Sources, Links & Additional Information


1960s: Aldon Music songwriters - Barry Mann, Cynthia Weil, Gerry Goffin and Carole King.


Rich Podolsky’s 2012 book, “Don Kirchner: The Man with the Golden Ear,” on the Brill Building era. Click for copy.


CD cover art for a 5-CD collection of Carole King albums, “Original Album Classics,” from Epic records. Click for CD.


“Troubadours: The Rise of the Singer-Songwriter,” DVD and CD, from TV film aired on PBS ‘American Masters’ series.

Greg Shaw, “Brill Building Pop,” in Anthony De Curtis and James Henke (eds), Rolling Stone Ilustrovaná história Rock & amp Roll, Random House, New York, 1992, pp. 143-152.

Ken Emerson, Always Magic in the Air: The Bomp and Brilliance of the Brill Building Era, New York: Viking, 2005.

“Carole King: Natural Woman,” American Masters (PBS-TV), February 19, 2016.

Sheila Weller, Girls Like Us: Carole King, Joni Mitchell, Carly Simon–And the Journey of a Generation, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2008.

“List of Songs with Lyrics by Gerry Goffin,” Wikipedia.org.

“It Might as Well Rain Until September,” Wikipedia.org.

“Why Not Me?” (excerpt from A Natural Woman, by Carole King), New York Magazine, March 19, 2012.

Stephen Holden, “The Pop Life …Songwriters Hall of Fame Inducts Nine Members,” New York Times, March 11, 1987, p. 24.

Jon Pareles, “Rock Hall of Fame Opens The Gates to Pop Artists,” New York Times, January 19, 1990, p. 3.

Grace Lichtenstein, “Carole King Steps Into The Limelight,” New York Times, November. 29, 1970, p. 149.

Grace Lichtenstein, “Carole King Draws 70,000 to Central Park, New York Times, May 27, 1973, p. 1.

“Carole King: Johnny Mercer Award,” SongHall.org, 2002.

Harvey Kubernik, Canyon of Dreams: The Magic and the Music of Laurel Canyon, 2009.

Chris Morris, “Gerry Goffin Draws Overdue ‘Blood’,” Billboard, April 13, 1996, p. 43.

Ray Waddell, “James Taylor and Carole King Craft Season’s Hottest Tour,” Billboard.com, July 16, 2010.

John Kehe, Book Review, “Carole King’s Memoir Is Short on Musical Details, But Long on the Artist’s Personal Saga,” Christian Science Monitor, May 29, 2012.

Steve Chagollan, “Carole King: A Natural Hitmaker / Walk of Fame Honors,” Variety .com, December 3, 2012.

Meredith Blake, “Gerry Goffin, Songwriting Partner of Carole King, Dies at 75,” Los Angeles Times, June 19, 2014.

Adam Bernstein, “Gerry Goffin, Lyricist Who Co-Wrote Seminal ’60s Hits, Dies at 75,” Washington Post, June 20, 2014.

William Yardley and Peter Keepnews, “Gerry Goffin, Hitmaking Songwriter With Carole King, Dies at 75,” New York Times, June 19, 2014.

Richard Corliss,” Remembering Gerry Goffin, the 󈨀s Poet of Teen Heartbreak,” Čas, June 20, 2014.

Richard Williams, “Gerry Goffin: The Poet Laureate of Teenage Pop,” Strážca (London, UK), June 20, 2014.

Kevin Rawlinson, “Gerry Goffin, U.S. Lyricist, Dies at 75 Goffin Penned More than 50 Top 40 Hits…,” Strážca, June, 20, 2014.

Bob Stanley, “Gerry Goffin: Six of His Best Songs,” Strážca, June 20, 2014.

Martin Chilton, Culture Editor, “Gerry Goffin: 10 Great Songs,” Telegraf, June 20, 2014.

Spencer Leigh, “Gerry Goffin: Prolific Songwriter Whose Work with His Wife Carole King Helped Shape the Course of Popular Music ‘Will You Love Me Tomorrow’ Became One of the Most-Recorded Songs Ever,” The Independent (U.K.), June 20, 2014.

“Gerry Goffin & Carole King: Selected Hits, 1960-1965,” SongBook1.wordpress.com.

Harvey Kubernik, “Carole King’s Monumental Tapestry Album,” PBS.com/American Mas-ters, February 14, 2011.

Hiram Lee, “The Career of Popular Songwriter Gerry Goffin (1939-2014), WSWS.org, July 7, 2014.

Jon Kanis, “Gerry Goffin: Beyond the Brill Building,” SanDiegoTroubadour.com, August 2014.

Cathy Applefeld Olson, “Carole King, George Lucas & More Feted at 2015 Kennedy Center Honors,” Billboard.com, December 7, 2015.

Helen Brown, “Carole King Interview: ‘I Didn’t Have the Courage to Write Songs Initially’,” Telegraf (London), March 7, 2016.

Amanda Kolson Hurley, “Welcome to Disturbia: Why Midcentury Americans Believed The Suburbs Were Making Them Sick,” Curbed.com, May 25, 2016.

Melinda Newman, “Adele Beats Carole King To Set Another New Record,” Forbes, April 7, 2017.

Kristin Corpuz, “Carole King’s Biggest Billboard Hot 100 Hits,” Billboard.com, February 8, 2017.

Elon Green, “A Magical Ten Seconds of the Shirelles,” Newyorčan, May 3, 2018.


Romania occupied by Soviet troops

On August 22, 1944, Soviet forces break through to Jassy, in northeastern Romania, convincing Romania’s king to sign an armistice with the Allies and concede control of his country to the USSR.

As early as 1937, Romania had come under control of a fascist government that bore great resemblance to that of Germany’s, including similar anti-Jewish laws. Romania’s king, Carol II, dissolved the government a year later, but was unable to suppress the fascist Iron Guard paramilitary organization. 

In June 1940, the Soviet Union co-opted two Romanian provinces, and the king searched for an ally to help protect it and appease the far right within its own borders. So on July 5, 1940, Romania allied itself with Nazi Germany. Later that year, it would be invaded by its 𠇊lly” as part of Hitler’s strategy to create one huge eastern front against the Soviet Union.

King Carol would abdicate in September 1940, leaving the country in the control of fascist Prime Minister Ion Antonescu and the Iron Guard. While Romania would recapture the territory lost to the Soviet Union when the Germans invaded Russia, it would also have to endure the Germans’ raping of its resources as part of the Nazi war effort.

As the war turned against Germany, and the Soviet Union began to run roughshod over Eastern Europe, Antonescu started looking west for allies to save it from Soviet occupation. At this stage, King Michael, son of the late King Carol, emerged from the shadows and had the pro-German Antonescu arrested, imploring Romanians, and loyal military men, to fight with, not against, the invading Soviets. The king would finally sign an armistice with the Allies and declare war against an already-dying Germany in 1944.


The Man

The fact that Wenceslaus’ [as his name was spelled at that time], proved to be so virtuous is even more remarkable when you consider his upbringing. His parents were Vratislav I, Duke of Bohemia, and Drahomira, the daughter of a pagan tribal chief, who was baptized at the time of their marriage.

In 921 A.D. his father, Vratislav, died, and Drahomira, his mother, took control of the Dukedom as regent. The then 13-year-old Wenceslaus went to live with his grandmother, Ludmila, a devout Christian who imbued her grandson with the true meaning of charity.

Drahomira’s pagan upbringing resurfaced with a vengeance. She had never really accepted the Catholic faith, and she now turned against it entirely. She seized her husband’s death as a chance to destroy the religion by purging Catholics from public office, closing churches, and preventing all teaching of the faith.

Wenceslas’ grandmother, Ludmila, had to resort to smuggling priests into her house to help teach him. A fierce dispute between Ludmila and Drahomira broke out which only ended on Sept. 15, 921 when Ludmila was strangled by one of Drahomira’s palace guards in her private chapel.

Even after this Wenceslas still remained a Christian. He learnt to read and write, something that was unusual for even a King or Duke in those days and had local Bishops smuggled in at night to teach him the Bible. Around 924 or 925 , Wenceslas, now 18, gained control of Bohemia from his mother, at which time he exiled Drohomira and his twin brother, Boleslaus, who was a few minutes younger than him. He is then recorded as defending Bohemia from a couple of invasions by Dukes of a neighbouring regions.


King Carol - History

Neil Sedaka's career was on the rocks before this song. At Aldon music, producer and longtime friend Don Kirshner gave Sedaka the following advice: "Write a song with the girl's name in the title. Talk in the middle like The Diamonds did in 'Little Darlin'.'"

Sedaka, who co-wrote the song with Howard Greenfield, recalls the inspiration slightly differently. He studied Billboard magazine, and says, "I looked at the #1 record in every country in the world and analyzed it. And that's how Howie and I wrote 'Oh! Carol.' I took the beat, I took the drum licks, I took the guitar licks, I took the harmony changes, and I went to school on them. Howie wrote the lyrics in twenty minutes but was embarrassed. He thought it was terrible. But it was exactly what I wanted."

Carole King released an answer song later in 1959 called "Oh, Neil," which was written by Sedaka, Greenfield, and King's husband, Gerry Goffin. That one begins:

Oh Neil
I've loved you for so long
I never dreamed
You'd put me in song

Comments: 12

  • Jackson Firestone from United States 7/28/2020: OK, let’s set the record straight (pun intended), once and for all: Neil Sedaka wrote the MUSIC to “OH CAROL”, but the LYRICS were written by HOWARD GREENFIELD. My mother’s younger brother — my Uncle Howie Greenfield. Unk Howie had told me — on several occasions — that the ‘Carol’ referred to in “OH CAROL” was my mother — Howie’s older sister — my mother — Carol Greenfield. JF
  • Dwight from Virginia Beach, Va I stand corrected, Carole King was born Carol Klein . thus Oh Carol . I should've researched that first .
  • Dwight from Virginia Beach, Va . I accept the premise that Neil wrote the song for Carole King. If he did, why wasn't the song named Oh Carole .
  • Teresa from Mechelen, Belgium Carole King and Neil Sedaka going together to school and falling in love. A very good song.
  • Alf from Kingston, Canada My sister had the album with all these songs on it, the RCA label with the puppy looking in the horn on the phonograph. when I was about 4 I thought it was a female singing, lol & wondered why a woman would be singing Oh Carol! Neil Sedaka's stuff is awesome! The song Sweet Little You has a similar piano part as Ernie K Doe's Mother In Law song. I'm not sure who wrote or who recorded it 1st but Ernie K Doe's song entered Billboard on March 27, 1961 & Neil's Sweet Little You entered Billboard on August 28, 1961.
  • Chinchu from Guayaquil, South America This was one of the first "product" songs, you know, a song that was written to hit the charts. Sedaka analyzed hit songs of that time and united them in this hit.
  • Darrell from Eugene, United States I wrote a version of this about myself in 1983, and I stopped singing it because everyone thought that I was a narcissist, extremely vain and/or in love with myself. Therefore, nary a copy of "Oh Darrell" still exists, the last having been burned in my wood stove in 1991.
  • Eva from Brisbane, Australia The song "Oh Carol" is a very beautiful song, it is very romantic. Neil Sedaka rocks!
  • Mary from San Jose, Ca i love the song called oh carol
  • Qubad from Mumbai, Ms please mail me this song this is one of the favourite songs of mine
  • Sanjaya from Kathmandu, India DEAR SIR SEDAKA !
    I AM A POP SINGER IN NEPAL AND I LIKE THE SONG "OH CAROL" VERY MUCH.
    I MADE A NEPALI REMIX OF "OH CAROL".
    I WOULD BE HIGHLY THANKFUL IF YOU WOULD SUGGEST AND GIVE ME FORMAL AUTHORIZATION THROUGH E-MAIL SO THAT I MAY RELEASE THE NEPALI REMIX "OH CAROL".

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