Edmund Bonner

Edmund Bonner

Edmund Bonner sa pravdepodobne narodil v Hanley v štáte Worcestershire okolo roku 1500. Verí sa, že jeho otec bol George Savage, rektor Davenhamu v Cheshire. Bonner bol prijatý do Broadgates Hall v Oxforde okolo roku 1512. Sedem rokov študoval občianske a kanonické právo a v júli 1519 ho po sebe nasledujúce dni zaraďovali do bakalárskeho stupňa občianskeho práva a kanonického práva. (1)

Bonner bol vymenovaný za kaplána kardinála Thomasa Wolseyho a v auguste 1529 bol vyslaný na veľvyslanectvo k francúzskemu kráľovi. Wolsey stratil moc v roku 1530, ale Bonner odovzdal svoju lojalitu Thomasovi Cromwellovi a uskutočnil diplomatické misie pre Henricha VIII. V roku 1537 sa stal kaplánom kráľa, ktorý získal povolenie byť nerezidentom a držať benefície v hodnote 500 libier. Podľa Johna Foxeho: „Bonner sa zdal Henryho po celý čas veľmi oddaný svojmu odporu voči pápežovi a silne podporoval reformáciu“. (2)

Bonner bol veľvyslancom Henricha VIII. Na dvore kráľa Françoisa I. a v októbri 1538 ho odvolali do Anglicka, kde sa stal biskupom z Herefordu. Nasledujúci rok sa stal londýnskym biskupom. Bonner čoskoro ukázal, že bude aktívny v boji proti heréze. Bonner začal vyšetrovanie Anny Askewovej, ktorá bola v úzkom kontakte s Joan Bocherovou, vedúcou osobnosťou anabaptistov a ďalších reformátorov, akými boli napríklad John Lascelles. (3)

V marci 1546 bol Askew zatknutý pre podozrenie z kacírstva. Bola vypočutá kvôli knihe, ktorú mala pri sebe a ktorú napísal John Frith, protestantský kňaz, ktorý bol v roku 1533 spálený za kacírstvo, pretože tvrdila, že Sväté písmo nemôže dokázať ani očistec, ani transsubstanciáciu. Rozhovor s ňou urobil Edmund Bonner. Po dlhej diskusii bola Anne Askew presvedčená, aby podpísala priznanie, ktoré predstavovalo iba mierne kvalifikované vyhlásenie o ortodoxnej viere. (4)

Henry VIII zomrel 28. januára 1547. Po nástupe Eduarda VI. Sa Bonner čoskoro ocitol v ťažkostiach so svojimi názormi. Biskup Bonner odmietol zložiť prísahu nadradenosti a bol poslaný do väzenia Fleet. (5) S podporou biskupa Stephena Gardinera bol prepustený. Bol však poslaný do väzenia Marshalsea v roku 1550. „Autor kroniky sivých bratov hovorí o tom, ako 8. januára 1550 Bonner nechal strážcovi väzenia odstrániť posteľ a osem dní mal len slamu a prikrývku. dňa, pretože odmietol svojmu galantovi zaplatiť čiastku 10 libier. Bonnerovo odvolanie proti jeho rozsudku bolo vypočuté 6. februára 1550, keď bol z Marshalsea odvezený na radu sediacu v Hviezdnej komore vo Westminsteri. Bol informovaný, že jeho odvolanie bolo zvážených a prepustených ôsmimi tajnými radcami. Jeho zbavenie arcibiskupa a ďalších komisárov trvalo a jeho rozsudok bol potvrdený. ​​“ (6) Jedným z tých, ktorí svedčili proti nemu, bol William Latymer. (7)

Edmund Bonner zostal vo väzení do 5. augusta 1553, kedy kráľovná Mária poslala milosť. John Foxe tvrdí, že „Mary videla práve to, čo potrebovala, v Bonnerovi, ktorý sa vrhol na prenasledovanie protestantov celou svojou energiou. Hovorí sa, že dvesto mučeníkov tejto doby bolo osobne súdených a odsúdených ním. Bonner bol tvrdý a vytrvalý muž, bez ľútosti a súcitu voči ľuďom, ktorí mu boli predložení. Bonnera neuspokojilo nič iné ako úplné odovzdanie. Doteraz ho jeho hnev proti heréze niesol tak, že údajne volal po prútoch a bil ho. tvrdohlavý je sám svedkom pri niekoľkých príležitostiach. “ (8) John Story bol vymenovaný za svojho hlavného vyšetrovateľa. (9)

Pred upálením kacírov museli vydržať obrad degradácie. „Ruky boli zoškrabané nožom, aby sa odstránil svätý olej, ktorým boli pomazaní. Škrabanie bolo možné vykonať buď jemne, alebo hrubo. Protestanti tvrdili, že Bonner to urobil zhruba vždy, keď sa zúčastnil obradu degradácie; ale to môže boli protestantskou propagandou, pretože Bonnerov prístup sa pohyboval medzi bujarým a agresívnym hanobením a trpezlivým pokusom presvedčiť heretikov, aby sa stiahli, aby mohli byť ušetrené ich životy. “ (10)

Biskup John Rogers bol prvým protestantom, ktorého súdy odsúdili na smrť. Rogers povedal Bonnerovi, že musí predložiť iba jednu žiadosť, a požiadal, aby mu pred spálením bolo dovolené prijať jednu rozlúčkovú návštevu jeho manželky. Jeho žiadosť bola zamietnutá a 4. februára 1555 bol v Smithfielde upálený. O päť dní ho nasledovali biskup John Hooper, Rowland Taylor a Laurence Saunders.

John Foxe písal o smrti Hoopera v jeho Kniha mučeníkov (1563): "Hoopera priviedli na kôl. Od stráže dostal balíky strelného prachu, aby urýchlili jeho smrť a zmiernili utrpenie. Tieto si vložil pod ruky a medzi nohy ... Keď zapálil oheň." .. strelný prach na Hooperovi vypadol, ale ani to pre vietor nebolo dobré prsia rukami, až kým mu jedna ruka neodpadla. Potom druhou zaklopal - z končekov prstov mu stekal tuk, voda a krv ... Hopper bol v ohni viac ako štyridsaťpäť minút a trpezlivo trpel keď mu spálila spodná časť tela a vysypali sa mu črevá. “ (11)

Biskup Edmund Bonner nariadil zatknutie Thomasa Cranmera, Hugha Latimera, Nicholasa Ridleyho a Johna Bradforda. (12) 14. februára 1555 bol Cranmer zbavený cirkevných úradov a odovzdaný svetským úradom. John Foxe poukázal na to: „Lekári a veštci z Oxfordu sa ho snažili prinútiť odvolať, dokonca mu umožnili zostať v dekanskom dome, kým sa s ním hádali, a nakoniec Cranmer vyhovel ich požiadavkám a podpísal rekantáciu, ktorá akceptovala pápežovu autoritu. vo všetkých veciach. " (13)

Cranmera postavili pred súd za kacírstvo 12. septembra 1555. Pápež Pavol IV. Vymenoval za sudcu Jamesa Brooksa, biskupa z Gloucesteru, ktorý sa konal v kostole Panny Márie v Oxforde. Thomas Martin, prokurátor obžaloby, podrobil Cranmera tomu, čo bolo opísané ako „brilantné a nemilosrdné krížové vyšetrenie“, pričom sa ho pýtal na jeho vzťah k „Čiernej Johane delfínskej“ v Cambridge a na jeho manželstvo s Margarétou v Nemecku v r. 1532. Martin tiež strávil čas na prísahe, ktorú zložil 30. marca 1533 počas obradu svätenia, keď sa stal arcibiskupom z Canterbury. Cranmera tiež podrobil krížovému vyšetreniu John Story, podľa R. W. Heinzeho, „geniálneho inkvizítora“. (14)

Podľa Jaspera Ridleyho, autora Bloody Mary's Martyrs (2002): „Cranmer mal žalostnú výstavu; bol úplne zlomený svojim uväznením, poníženiami, ktoré na neho narážali, a porážkou všetkých jeho nádejí; a zásadná slabosť jeho povahy, jeho váhania a pochybností boli očividné. zobrazený. Ale vytrvalo odmietal odvolať sa a uznať pápežskú nadvládu. Bol odsúdený ako kacír. “ (15)

16. októbra bol Cranmer nútený sledovať svojich priateľov, Nicholasa Ridleyho a Hugha Latimera, spálených na hranici kvôli kacírstvu. „Uvádza sa, že v slzách padol na kolená. Niektoré slzy boli možno len pre neho. Vždy verne veril zavedenému štátu; predstavoval pre neho božskú vládu. Ak by teraz neposlúchol panovníka a najvyššia hlava Cirkvi, aj keby si priala vrátiť jurisdikciu Ríma? Vo svojom svedomí popieral pápežskú nadvládu. Aj vo svojom svedomí bol povinný poslúchať svojho panovníka. “ (16)

21. marca 1556 bol Thomas Cranmer privezený do kostola Panny Márie v Oxforde, kde stál na pódiu a smerovala proti nemu kázeň. Potom sa od neho očakávalo, že prednesie krátky príhovor, v ktorom zopakuje svoje prijatie právd katolíckej cirkvi. Namiesto toho odvolal svoje odvolania a odmietol šesť vyhlásení, ktoré predtým urobil a pápeža označil za „Kristovho nepriateľa a Antikrista so všetkou jeho falošnou doktrínou“. Úradníci ho stiahli z plošiny a ťahali ho k lešeniu.

Cranmer v Cirkvi povedal, že ľutuje podpísanie rekantácií, a tvrdil, že „keďže moja ruka urazila, bude potrestaná ... keď prídem k ohňu, najskôr bude spálený“. Podľa Johna Foxeho: „Keď prišiel na miesto, kde pred ním upálili Hugha Latimera a Ridleyho, Cranmer si kľakol, aby sa modlil, a potom sa vyzliekol do košele, ktorá mu visela až na bosé nohy. Hlava, keď raz vzlietol jeho čiapky boli také holé, že na nich nebol ani vlas. Jeho brada bola dlhá a hrubá a zakrývala mu tvár, ktorá bola taká vážna, že dojala aj jeho priateľov, aj nepriateľov. Keď sa k nemu oheň priblížil, Cranmer vložil pravú ruku do plamene, ktoré tam držali, kým ho všetci nevideli spáliť, než sa dotkli jeho tela “. Cranmera bolo počuť plakať: „Táto nehodná pravá ruka!“ (17)

Po smrti kráľovnej Márie ju nahradila kráľovná Alžbeta, ktorá ukončila upaľovanie kacírov. Christopher Morris, autor knihy Tudorovci (1955) tvrdil: „Trest smrti upálením bol strašne krutý, ale nie je to tak, čo šokovalo súčasníkov - koniec koncov, v dobe, ktorá nevedela nič o anestetikách, musela veľkú bolesť prežiť každý v tej či onej dobe a chuť na verejné popravy, vábenie medveďov a boje s kohútom naznačuje bezcitnosť, ktorá otupila citlivosť. “ (18) Počas päťročného obdobia bolo upálených asi 280 ľudí. John Foxe tvrdil, že asi 200 z nich bolo osobne súdených a odsúdených. (19)

20. apríla 1560 bol poslaný do väzenia Marshalsea. Zostal tam až do svojej smrti 5. septembra 1569. (20) „Hoci Bonnera nikto nevidel viac ako desať rokov, jeho spomienka bola taká čerstvá a ľudia ho tak nenávideli, že ho o polnoci pochovali, aby sa vyhol vzbure. " (21)

Londýnsky biskup Edmund Bonner, ktorý sa tak významne podieľal na prenasledovaní protestantov počas vlády kráľovnej Márie, sa narodil v Hanley vo Worcestershire okolo roku 1500. Bol vzdelaný v Oxforde a po prijatí za kňaza vstúpil domácnosť kardinála Wolseyho.

Po celú dobu Henryho vlády sa Bonner zdal byť veľmi vážny vo svojom odpore voči pápežovi a silne v prospech reformácie. Po Henryho smrti však odmietol zložiť prísahu nadradenosti pre Edwarda a bol poslaný do väzenia, kým nesúhlasil, že bude poslušný novému kráľovi, bol prepustený a neskôr opäť uväznený, kým kráľovná Mária neprebrala trón.

Mary videla práve to, čo potrebovala, v Bonnerovi, ktorý sa vrhol na prenasledovanie protestantov celou svojou energiou. Jeho hnev proti heréze ho doteraz niesol tak, že údajne sám viackrát bil o prúty a bil tvrdohlavých svedkov.

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(1) Kenneth Carleton, Edmund Bonner: Oxfordský slovník národnej biografie (2004-2014)

(2) John Foxe, Foxeho kniha mučeníkov (1563) strana 248 vydania 2014.

(3) Alec Ryrie, John Lascelles: Oxfordský slovník národnej biografie (2004-2014)

(4) Alison Plowden, Tudorské ženy (2002), strana 111

(5) Jasper Ridley, Bloody Mary's Martyrs (2002), strana 31

(6) Kenneth Carleton, Edmund Bonner: Oxfordský slovník národnej biografie (2004-2014)

(7) Andrew Hope, William Latymer: Oxfordský slovník národnej biografie (2004-2014)

(8) John Foxe, Foxeho kniha mučeníkov (1563) strana 248 vydania 2014.

(9) Julian Lock, John Story: Oxfordský slovník národnej biografie (2004-2014)

(10) Jasper Ridley, Bloody Mary's Martyrs (2002), strana 67

(11) John Foxe, Foxeho kniha mučeníkov (1563) strana 121-122 vydania 2014.

(12) Diarmaid MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer: Oxfordský slovník národnej biografie (2004-2014)

(13) John Foxe, Kniha mučeníkov (1563) strana 217 vydania 2014.

(14) Julian Lock, John Story: Oxfordský slovník národnej biografie (2004-2014)

(15) Jasper Ridley, Bloody Mary's Martyrs (2002), strana 112

(16) Peter Ackroyd, Tudorovci (2012), strana 278-279

(17) John Foxe, Kniha mučeníkov (1563) strana 219 vydania 2014.

(18) Christopher Morris, Tudorovci (1955) strana 102

(19) John Foxe, Foxeho kniha mučeníkov (1563) strana 248 vydania 2014.

(20) Kenneth Carleton, Edmund Bonner: Oxfordský slovník národnej biografie (2004-2014)

(21) John Foxe, Foxeho kniha mučeníkov (1563) strana 249 vydania 2014.


BONNER, EDMUND

Anglický reformačný biskup a legista b. pravdepodobne 1500 d. Väzenie Marshalsea, Londýn, 5. septembra 1569. Napriek tomu, že sa o tom stále diskutuje, Bonner je údajne nemanželským synom Georga Savagea, rektora Danehamu v Cheshire a Elizabeth Frodshamovej, ktorá sa neskôr vydala za Edmunda Bonnera, dlhoročného pilčíka. z Hanley, Worcestershire. Na Pembroke College v Oxforde získal Bonner bakalársky titul z občianskeho a kanonického práva (1519) a doktorát z občianskeho práva (1525). Vysvätený bol okolo roku 1519.

V roku 1529 sa stal kaplánom kardinála Thomasa Wolseyho a zúčastnil sa rokovaní medzi kardinálom a Thomasom Cromwellom, pričom po páde od moci zostal s Wolseyom. Bonner, ktorý sa tešil priazni Cromwella, bol v rokoch 1532 až 1540 zamestnaný Henrichom VIII. Na niekoľkých diplomatických misiách na kontinente Klementa VII., Karola V., Františka I. a luteránskych kniežat. V Marseille argumentoval Henryho prípadom za zrušenie tak úprimne pred Klementom VII., Že ho to rozhorčilo pri inej príležitosti, Bonnerov suverénny spôsob urazil Františka I.

Napriek tomu, že ho Henry vymenoval za Herefordskú stolicu (1538), ešte nebol vysvätený, keď bol preložený do Londýna (1539). Bol tam vysvätený v apríli 1540. Rázny obranca Henryho manželstva s Anne Boleynovou prijal kráľovskú nadvládu. Svoju horlivosť prejavil napísaním veľmi antipapálneho predslovu k hamburskému (1536) vydaniu De Vera Obedientia, Obhajoba Stephena Gardinera z Henryho tvrdenia, že je hlavou anglickej cirkvi.

Bonner tiež uľahčil tlač Tyndalovej biblie, ktorá bola určená na distribúciu v Anglicku. Napriek tomu bol rovnako dôrazne proti protestantským doktrínam ako Cuthbert tunstall a Stephen Gardiner. V neskorších rokoch prijatie kráľovskej nadvlády otvorene pripisoval strachu z odvety zo strany kráľa.

Po nástupe Eduarda VI. (1547) bol Bonner uväznený pre niekoľko obvinení, napríklad pre odmietnutie uznania práva Kráľovej rady na inovácie v náboženstve počas kráľovskej menšiny, ale v zásade pre odmietnutie prijatia zavedenia protestantizmu. V dôsledku obvinení vznesených Johnom Hooperom a Hughom Latimerom a po vyšetrení arcibiskupom Cranmerom bol Bonner v októbri 1549 zbavený biskupstva.

Obnovený Máriou, sa zúčastnil vedúcej úlohy v návrate k pápežskej vernosti a ortodoxnej doktríne. Ako londýnsky biskup predsedal procesom s mnohými kacírmi, pretože jeho stolica bola hlavným centrom protestantizmu. Jeho pozícia v tejto súvislosti ho otvorila výsmechu z toho, že bol predtým bojovným nepriateľom pápežstva. K protestantizmu zaujal pozitívnejší vzťah tým, že písal a distribuoval vo svojej diecéze Zisková a potrebná doktrína pre každého kresťana, jednoduché vyhlásenie katolíckych doktrín, ktoré Philip Hughes opísal ako „mimoriadne srdečného sprievodcu k lepšiemu životu“.

Za to, že sa postavil proti Elizabethiným zmenám v svätej omši a odmietol uznať jej nárok na nadradenosť, bol zbavený videnia a zaviazaný k nástupu do Marshalsea v máji 1559. Jeho právna bystrosť mu umožnila vyvrátiť obvinenia očividnejšie kriminálnej povahy, ako napr. porušenie Praemunire, čím odrádza vládu od popravy ďalších biskupov. Zomrel ešte vo väzení.

Protestantskí súčasníci, najmä John Bale a John Foxe, Bonnera obvinili z toho, že bol krvilačným prenasledovateľom protestantov, takže jeho meno sa v anglických dejinách hanilo až do konca 19. storočia. V dôsledku objektívnejších spisov o reformácii, najmä diel takých (protestantských) vedcov, akými boli S. R. Maitland a James Gairdner, sa Bonnerova povesť tohto poplatku oslobodila. Dnes sa už všeobecne zhoduje, že vo svetle kráľovskej politiky a dobových štandardov nebol pri trestaní za kacírstvo ani krutý, ani príliš horlivý.

Bibliografia: p. Hughes, Reformácia Anglicka. 3 v. V 1 (New York, 1968). l. b. kováč, Tudorovci preláti a politika (Princeton 1953). g. l. m. j. konštantný, Reformácia v Anglicku, tr. r. e. nepokoj a e. i. watkin, 2 v. (New York 1934 – 42). g. e. Phillips, Pravda o biskupovi Bonnerovi (Londýn 1910). j. gairdner, Slovník národnej biografie od najstarších čias do roku 1900 (Londýn 1885 – 1900) 2: 818 – 822. h. o. evennett, Lexikon f ü r Theologie und Kirche, vyd. j. hofer a k. rahner (Freiburg 1957 – 65) 2: 600 – 601. j. žiara, Literárny a biografický príbeh alebo bibliografický slovník anglických katolíkov od roku 1534 do súčasnosti, 5 v. (Londýn – New York, 1885 – 1902) 1: 260 – 266.


Biskup Bonner a ďalší duchovia Fulhamského paláca

Sídlo Fulhamského paláca v západnom Londýne je vo vlastníctve Cirkvi viac ako 1300 rokov a po mnoho storočí je domovom londýnskych biskupov. Niekoľko z nich sa skončilo lepkavým koncom: v roku 1381 biskupa Sudburyho odvliekli na Tower Hill a sťali mu biskupa Ridleyho a jeho kolegov, biskupa Latimera a biskupa Cranmera, ktorí v roku 1555 upálili na hranici a biskupa Lauda sťali v roku 1645 za vlastizradu. Vzhľadom na jeho turbulentné a niekedy krvavá história, nie je prekvapením, že správy o duchoch a paranormálnych udalostiach siahajú až do 80. rokov 17. storočia a pokračujú dodnes.

Biskup Bonner

V 16. storočí, počas vlády kráľovnej Márie I., katolícky biskup Edmund Bonner mučil a väznil protestantov vo Fulhamovom paláci, odtiaľ pochádza jeho neoficiálny názov „Krvavý“ Bonner. Bol oddaným, ale krutým mužom s veľkou mocou a bol kaplánom kardinála Thomasa Wolseyho, vďaka čomu si všimol kráľa Henricha VIII. A Thomasa Cromwella.

Vo Foxe's Kniha mučeníkov je popísaný:

"Tento ľudožrút zabil za tri roky priestor tristo mučeníkov."

Boli to jeho jedlo, miloval tak krv, nešetril nikoho, koho poznal “

Bonner vykonal brutálne vyšetrenia kacírov vo veľkej sieni a stredovekej kaplnke.

Pod schodmi v blízkosti starej kuchyne a siene slúžnej stála uhoľná pivnica, v ktorej sa nachádzala žalár. Hovorilo sa, že z tejto pivnice bol tunel, lemovaný hnijúcimi kostrami, spájajúci palác s ulicou Fulham Palace Road, kde bývala Bonnerova matka, dnes Zlatý lev, najstaršia krčma vo Fulhame.

V Bethnal Green, kde mal tiež kaštieľ, údajne videli strašidelného trénera a kone. Sú po ňom pomenované ulice Bonner Road, Bonner Street a Bonner Bridge, ako aj miestna krčma Edmund Bonner, ktorá taktiež informovala o strašidelnej činnosti.

Pred príchodom do Londýna v 30 -tych rokoch minulého storočia bol Bonner rektorom v kostole sv. Mikuláša v Derehame v Norfolku, kde je po ňom pomenované chatové múzeum. V Derehame sa objavili správy, že jeho duch bol videný jazdiť v „čiernom voze ťahanom koňmi tak tmavými, že ich v noci takmer nebolo vidieť“. (Je to pravdepodobne ten istý tréner, ktorého videli v Bethnal Green?)

Keď na trón prišla kráľovná Alžbeta I., Bonner bol vyhnaný do väzenia Marshalsea, kde zomrel. Keďže bol taký nenávidený, bol o polnoci tajne pochovaný v neoznačenom hrobe v kostole svätého Juraja v Southwarku. Jeho telo bolo neskôr premiestnené do Copfordu (starobylé panstvo londýnskeho biskupa) neďaleko Colchesteru a pochované v tamojšom kostole. Znovuobjavený bol v roku 1810, keď sa kopal hrob pre nedávno zosnulého richtára.

Príbehy Bonnerovho ducha vo Fulhamovom paláci existujú viac ako 200 rokov. Jeho duch je známy tým, že chodí po severných miestnostiach tudorovského nádvoria. K poslednému pozorovaniu došlo tam začiatkom roku 2019. Senior site manager Steve Bevan, ktorý dohliadal na zásadnú obnovu paláca, bol v sobotu skoro ráno prvým na mieste v severných izbách: „Izby boli stále tmavé, ale bolo tam svetlo. žiarivá vec smerujúca ku mne. Chcel som zapnúť svetlá, aby som zistil, čo to je, ale akonáhle som to zapol, zmizlo to a prešlo mnou. Cítil som studený vietor. Bolo to naozaj zvláštne. Po tomto incidente som sa triasol - a nemám strach. “

Ďalšou vecou, ​​ktorú si Steve a jeho kolegovia všimli, bol rybí zápach v tej istej miestnosti, v ktorej sa stretol s duchom. Stále sa to objavuje každú chvíľu, aj keď nikto v Paláci nejedí ani nevarí ryby a je to teraz vchod do nového múzea.

Pozrite si rozhovor, ktorý som natočil so Stevom Bevanom:

Návštevníci často vo veľkej sieni hovoria o postave, údajne Bonnerovej. V roku 1989 tam bol svedkom zjavenia bývalý správca, pán Newman. Videl biskupa v starých úradníckych šatách, ako vošiel a prešiel cez chodbu. V polovici cesty sa biskup zastavil, sklonil a upravil si pokrčené pančuchy. Potom pokračoval v prechádzaní múrom. Pán Newman pri kontrole starých plánov zistil, že tam kedysi boli dvere. (Tieto dvere boli v súčasných prácach obnovené.)

V knihe Duch biskupa Bonnera (1789) od Hannah More je popísané ďalšie stretnutie s Bonnerom:

V záhradách paláca vo Fulhame je tmavé vybranie na konci tohto stojí stolička, ktorá kedysi patrila biskupovi Bonnerovi. Istý londýnsky biskup [biskup Porteus], ​​viac ako 200 rokov po smrti vyššie uvedeného Bonnera, práve keď hodiny gotickej kaplnky odbili šesť, sa zaviazal, že vlastnou rukou vyreže úzku chodbu - túto húštinu, ktorý sa odvtedy nazýva prechádzka mnícha. Sotva začal uvoľňovať cestu, ako, hľa! zrazu zo stoličky spustil duch biskupa Bonnera.

Hannah More

Svedčí to o trvalej sile Bonnera, že podľa všetkého produkoval strašidelné prejavy bez ohľadu na to, kde žil, a ktorý pokračuje aj po 500 rokoch.

Aj keď je biskup Bonner údajným duchom Fulhamského paláca, vyskytlo sa mnoho zvláštnych a nevysvetlených udalostí, ktoré by mohli naznačovať, že na mieste straší viac ako jeden duch. Nasledujúce skúsenosti boli zostavené z príbehov odovzdaných zamestnancami, dobrovoľníkmi, nájomníkmi a návštevníkmi:

Nádvorie Tudorovcov

  • Bolo vidieť, že okolo fontány sa objavujú ľudia a okamžite miznú.
  • Jedného veľmi hmlistého rána správca uvidel biskupa stojaceho na opačnej strane nádvoria. Pracovník kancelárie s ním však nič nevidel.
  • Jednu neskorú noc sa v paláci očakával dozorný pracovník bezpečnostnej služby. Keď neprišiel, jeden z ochrankárov ho šiel hľadať k predným dverám. Videl na zemi tmavý tvar a pri vyšetrovaní sa ukázalo, že je to dozorca. Po príchode na nádvorie zjavne uvidel čiernu strašidelnú postavu a omdlel.

Tudorov dvor na južnom krídle

  • Upratovač v jednej z izieb na poschodí videl, ako vošiel biskup a prešiel do ďalšej miestnosti. Keď sa vrátila do hlavnej časti paláca, povedala, že si neuvedomila, že tu bol biskup. Jej kolegovia však uviedli, že v ten deň v paláci neboli žiadni návštevníci.

Nádvorie Tudorovcov severné krídlo

  • Nájomník, ktorý jedného večera neskoro večer pracoval v kancelárii na prízemí, počul, ako sa nad ním otvorili dvere. Počul kroky kráčajúce po miestnosti a dvere sa na druhej strane otvárali a zatvárali. Myslel si, že je tam možno ďalší člen štábu, a išiel to vyšetriť, ale nikoho tam nenašiel. Vrátil sa dole do svojej kancelárie a pokračoval v práci. Potom počul, ako sa dvere znova otvorili, kroky sa vrátili cez miestnosť a druhé dvere sa otvárali a zatvárali.

Chodba ku kaplnke

  • Dobrovoľný sprievodca kráčajúci chodbou smerom ku kaplnke začul hore kroky. Dobrovoľníčka mala obuté mäkké topánky a každému kroku, ktorý urobila, zodpovedali kroky vyššie. Zastavila sa v ohybe chodby, ale kroky pokračovali.

Veľká hala

  • Jedného večera pri zamykaní veľkých drevených dverí člen personálu pocítil, ako sa k nemu dvere zatlačili. Keď si myslel, že sa niekto pokúša dostať dovnútra, otvoril dvere, ale nikto tam nebol.
  • Člen personálu vstúpil do uzamknutej haly zo severovýchodného požiarneho východu. Cítil tabakový dym. Išiel rovno k predným dverám a odomkol ich. V blízkom okolí nikto nefajčil. Ďalší zamestnanec potvrdil, že nikto nefajčí. Keď sa vrátili do veľkej siene, zápach zmizol.

Dvojité dvere medzi veľkou halou a chodbou

  • Jedného večera, keď boli dvaja zamestnanci zamknutí, boli svedkami toho, ako sa tieto dvere samy otvorili. Jeden zo zamestnancov skutočne poznamenal, že sa zdalo, že boli skôr vytiahnutí, než len vyhodení. Keďže bol celý palác bezpečný a všetky vnútorné dvere sa zavreli, pravdepodobnosť prievanu bola veľmi nepravdepodobná.

Jedáleň biskupa Howleyho

Jeden člen personálu a niekoľko dobrovoľníkov po mnoho rokov ucítili v strede miestnosti tabakový dym. Pri jednej príležitosti boli v priestoroch dymu iba zamestnanci a dobrovoľník. Hľadali zvnútra aj zvonku, ale nikoho nebolo vidieť.

Knižnica biskupa Porteusa a#8217s

  • Biskup Porteus mal hrôzu z toho, že bol pochovaný zaživa, takže v súlade s jeho vôľou bolo jeho telo ponechané niekoľko dní v kaplnke, aby sa zaistilo, že „návrat do života je prirodzene nemožný“.
  • Jeden zo zamestnancov prerozprával návštevníkovi príbeh o náhlej smrti dcéry biskupa Lowtha Frances. Obehol stôl, aby návštevníkovi ukázal knihu vo vitríne, ktorá popisovala jej smrť. Pred pultom obchodu obaja prešli studeným miestom a zareagovali súčasne a povedali druhému: „Cítil si to?

Sluhovia a schodisko č. 8217 pred izbou biskupa Sherlocka

  • Dvaja návštevníci, ktorí tvrdili, že sú psychickí, tvrdili, že im je pri schodisku veľmi chladno. Jedna tvrdila, že ju postrčili, keď sa pokúsila postaviť na schody.

Severovýchodné krídlo (Cirkevná poisťovňa)

  • V čase, keď sa toto krídlo chystalo pre múzeum a kancelárie, neexistovalo žiadne nabíjateľné elektrické náradie a robotníci používali nástroje spojené káblom s dodávkou elektriny. Niekoľko robotníkov zažilo vypínanie elektrických spínačov pri používaní elektrického náradia.

Hore

  • Keď sa múzeum otvorilo v roku 1992, boli tam tri mačky, jedna v gotickej lóži, jedna v záhrade (vonkajšia mačka) a jedna v paláci (vnútorná mačka). Vnútorná mačka sledovala personál po chodbách, ale zdalo sa, že sa bojí ísť s nimi hore a vždy sa rozhodla počkať na úpätí schodov, kým sa vrátia.
  • Počas reštaurátorských prác fázy 1 v roku 2006 bola miestnosť využívaná ako bezpečný sklad vybavenia. Pri viac ako jednej príležitosti, keď bola miestnosť ráno otvorená, sa veci hýbali.

Dôvody

  • Jednej neskorej noci v roku 1992, keď boli pozemky uzamknuté pre verejnosť, ochranka uvidela, ako sa medzi stromami mihne mladá dáma v dlhých splývavých šatách. Keď sa k nej priblížil, zakričal: „Hej, čo tu robíš“, odpovedala: „Tu bývam“ a okamžite mu zmizol pred očami. Vrátil sa do paláca a na zvyšok noci sa zamkol. (Bola to snáď Frances, milovaná dcéra biskupa Lowtha, ktorá zomrela uprostred podávania kávy biskupovi z Bristolu? Lowth napísal latinský epitaf, Cara, Vale “Milý, rozlúčka! ” o jej náhlej smrti, neskôr zhudobnil anglický skladateľ John Wall Callcott)
  • Jedného skorého rána návštevník kráčajúci blízko k opevnenej záhrade oznámil, že videl skupinu viktoriánskych ľudí kráčajúcich po ceste susediacej s pozemkami. Dodal, že jeden tlačí bicykel.

Veľká vďaka patrí Petrovi Trottovi, správcovi múzea vo Fulhamskom paláci na dôchodku, za poskytnutie mnohých vyššie uvedených správ.


História výprasku

V zdanlivo zinscenovanom predstavení, ktorého dátum nie je známy, učiteľka „udrie“ dieťa do kolena, zatiaľ čo zvyšok triedy grimasuje.

Podľa ministerstva školstva USA je telesný trest v škole povolený v 22 štátoch, pričom veľká väčšina sa vyskytuje v Texase, Oklahome, Mississippi, Louisiane, Alabame, Arkansase, Gruzínsku a Tennessee. Kirn Vintage Stock/Corbis/Getty Images


Rodinné stromy Bonner, hrebene, genealógie, biografie, DNA a ďalšie

Ďalšie výsledky z vyhľadávača Linkpendium Family Discoverer

Linkpendium zápasy 1 - 10 (z asi 13 899 celkom zodpovedajúcich stránok):

Poštové úrady v Idahu - Register
. Kancelárie kraja Ada Adams Bannock Bear Lake Benewah Bingham Blaine Boise Bonner Hranica Bonneville.
http://www.mindspring.com/

SAMPUBCO, Bonner County, Idaho naturalizačné indexy, závady
. SAMPUBCO, Bonner County, Idaho naturalizačné indexy, závady.
http://www.sampubco.com/nats/id/idbonner-pet01.htm

Bonnerova biblia
. Bonner Biblia.
http://www.biblerecords.com/bonner.html

Verejné knižnice v Kansase
. Knižnice Bisonské knižnice Knižnice Blue Mound Knižnice Blue Rapids Knižnice Bonner Springs Libraries Bronson.
http://library.public-libraries.org/Kansas/KS.html

Winona County, Minnesota Životopisy A až H
. P. Birge, Joseph L. Blair, George W. Blair, Luke Bonner, C. L. Boysen, Peter Ferdinard Brink, V. A.
http://www.onlinebiographies.info/mn/winona/part-1.htm

Vitajte v projekte prepisu a fotografií cintorína AHGP pre Idaho
. Benewah Bingham Blaine Boise Bonner Bonneville Boundary Butte Camas Canyon Caribou Cassia Clark Clearwater.
http://www.usgennet.org/usa/topic/cemetery/idaho/index.htm

Nájdite hrob - milióny záznamov o cintoríne a online pamätníky
. Fotografovaný cintorín Blanchard Blanchard Bonner County Idaho USA 3 217 88% Boyerov cintorín (Kootenai Cemetery.
http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=csr&CScnty=654

Toto hľadanie trvalo 28 milisekúnd.

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Supremacy and Survival: The English Reformation

Bishop Edmund Bonner, who at first accepted Henry VIII's supremacy and takeover of the Church in England, died on September 5, 1569 in Marshalsea Prison. As the 1911 Encyklopédia Britannica describes his career during the latter part of Henry's reign and Edward VI's more radical Reformation:

Hitherto Bonner had been known as a somewhat coarse and unscrupulous tool of Cromwell, a sort of ecclesiastical Wriothesley, He is not known to have protested against any of the changes effected by his masters he professed to be no theologian, and was wont, when asked theological questions, to refer his interrogators to the divines. He had graduated in law, and not in theology. There was nothing in the Reformation to appeal to him, except the repudiation of papal control and he was one of those numerous Englishmen whose views were faithfully reflected in the Six Articles. He became a staunch Conservative, and, apart from his embassy to the emperor in 1524�, was mainly occupied during the last years of Henry's reign in brandishing the “whip with six strings.”

The accession of Edward VI opened a fresh and more creditable chapter in Bonner's career. Like Gardiner, he could hardly repudiate that royal supremacy, in the establishment of which he had been so active an agent but he began to doubt that supremacy when he saw to what uses it could be put by a Protestant council, and either he or Gardiner evolved the theory that the royal supremacy was in abeyance during a royal minority. The ground was skilfully chosen, but it was not legally nor constitutionally tenable. Both he and Gardiner had in fact sought fresh licences to exercise their ecclesiastical jurisdiction from the young king and, if he was supreme enough to confer jurisdiction, he was supreme enough to issue the injunctions and order the visitation to which Bonner objected. Moreover, if a minority involved an abeyance of the royal supremacy in the ecclesiastical sphere, it must do the same in the temporal sphere, and there could be nothing but anarchy. It was on this question that Bonner came into conflict with Edward's government. He resisted the visitation of August 1547, and was committed to the Fleet but he withdrew his opposition, and was released in time to take an active part against the government in the parliament of November 1547. In the next session, November 1548-March 1549, he was a leading opponent of the first Act of Uniformity and Book of Common Prayer. When these became law, he neglected to enforce them, and on the 1st of September 1549 he was required by the council to maintain at St Paul's Cross that the royal authority was as great as if the king were forty years of age. He failed to comply, and after a seven days' trial he was deprived of his bishopric by an ecclesiastical court over which Cranmer presided, and was sent to the Marshalsea. The fall of Somerset in the following month raised Bonner's hopes, and he appealed from Cranmer to the council. After a struggle the Protestant faction gained the upper hand, and on the 7th of February 1550 Bonner's deprivation was confirmed by the council sitting in the Star Chamber, and he was further condemned to perpetual imprisonment.


Edmund Bonner

Bishop of London, b. about 1500 d. 1569. He was the son of Edmund Bonner, a sawyer of Potter's Henley in Worcestershire, England, and Elizabeth Frodsham. Doubt was cast on his legitimacy by Bale and other opponents, who asserted that he was the natural son of a priest named Savage, but Strype and other Anglican writers, including the historian S. R. Maitland, have shown the groundless nature of these assertions. He was educated at Pembroke College, Oxford, then Broad

ate Hall, where he took his degree as Bachelor both of canon and of civil law in 1519, and was ordained priest about the same time. . In 1525 he became doctor of civil law and soon after entered the service of Cardinal Wolsey, which brought him to the notice of the king and Cromwell, and thus led to a diplomatic career. After the fall of Wolsey he remained faithful to him and was with him at the time of his arrest and death. When the question of the king's divorce was raised, he was employed by the king as his agent at Rome, where he remained a whole year, 1532 33. During the following years he was much employed on important embassies in the king's interests, first to the pope to appeal against the excommunication pronounced in July, 1533, afterwards to the emperor to dissuade him from attending the general council which the pope wished to summon at Vicenza, and again to the French Court to succeed Gardiner there as ambassador. In this capacity he proved capable and successful, though irritation was frequently caused by his overbearing and dictatorial manner. Meanwhile his services were rewarded by successive grants of the livings of Cherry Burton (Yorks), Ripple (Worcester), Blaydon (Durham), and East Dereham (Norfolk), and he was made Archdeacon of Leicester in 1535. Finally, while ambassador in France, he was elected Bishop of Hereford (27th November 1538) but owing to his absence he could neither be consecrated nor take possession of his see, and he was still abroad when he was translated to the Bishopric of London. Elected in November, 1539, he returned, and was consecrated 4th April, 1540. Almost his first duty was to try heretics under Henry's Act of the Six Articles, and though his action seems to have been only official, accusations of excessive cruelty and bias against the accused were spread broadcast by his enemies, and from the first he seems to have been unpopular in London. During the years 1542-43 he was again abroad in Spain and Germany as ambassador to the emperor, at the end of which time he returned to London. The death of the king on 28th January 1547, proved the turning point in his career Hitherto he had shown himself entirely subservient to the sovereign, supporting him in the matter of the divorce, approving of the suppression of the religious houses, taking the oath of Supremacy which Fisher and More refused at the cost of life itself, and accepting schismatical consecration and institution. But while acting in this way, he had always resisted the innovations of the Reformers, and held to the doctrines of the old religion. Therefore from the first he put himself in opposition to the religious changes introduced by Protector Somerset and Archbishop Cranmer.

He opposed the "Visitors" appointed by the Council, and was committed to prison for so doing Though not long a prisoner, after two years of un satisfactory struggle he came again into conflict with the Protector owing to his omission to enforce the use of the new Prayer Book. When ordered to preach at St. Paul's Cross he did so, but with such significant omissions in the matter which had been prescribed touching the king's authority, that he was finally deprived of his see and sent as a prisoner to the Marshalsea. Here he remained till the accession of Mary in 1553. On 5th of August in that year he took possession of his diocese once more. In estimating Bishop Bonner's conduct on his restoration to his see the difficulties of the position must be recalled. There was in London an extremely violent reforming element which opposed in every way the restoration of Catholic worship. For twenty years the authority of the Holy See had been set at naught and ridiculed in unsparing terms, and though the Parliament in 1554 welcomed Pole as Papal Legate and sought absolution and reconciliation from him with apparent unanimity, there was a real hostility to the whole proceeding among a considerable section of the populace. During 1554 Bonner carried out a visitation of his diocese, restoring the Mass and the manifold practices and emblems of Catholic life, but the work was carried out slowly and with difficulty. To help in the work, Bonner published a list of thirty-seven "Articles to be enquired of", but these led to such disturbances that they were temporarily withdrawn. While many rejoiced to have the old worship restored, others exhibited the most implacable hostility. As Bonner sat at St. Paul's Cross to hear Gilbert Bourne preach, when reference was made to the bishop's sufferings under Edward VI a dagger was thrown at the preacher. At St. Margaret's, West- minster, a murderous assault was made on the priest giving Holy Communion, the Blessed Sacrament itself was the object of profane outrages, and street brawls arising out of religious disputes were frequent. Meanwhile many of the Reformers attacked the Queen herself in terms that were clearly treasonable. Had these been proceeded against by the civil power much evil might have been averted, but unfortunately it was thought at the time that as the root of the evil lay in the religious question, the offenders would best be dealt with by the ecclesiastical tribunals, and on Bonner, as Bishop of London, fell the chief burden. Besides his judicial work in his own diocese, Bonner was appointed to carry out the painful task of degrading Cranmer at Oxford in February, 1556. The part he took in these affairs gave rise to intense hatred on the part of the Reformers, and by them he was represented as hounding men and women to death with merciless vindictiveness. Foxe in his "Book of Martyrs" summed up this view in two doggerel lines:

Another virulent opponent of Bonner was John Bale, formerly a friar and ex-Bishop of Ossory, who in 1554 published from his place of exile at Basle, an attack on the bishop, in which he speaks of him as "the bloody sheep-bite of London", "bloody Bonner", and still coarser epithets. Concerning this outburst Dr. Maitland quietly remarks, "when Bale wrote this book, little that could be called persecution had taken place. Not one martyr had suffered." These attacks of Foxe and Bale are noteworthy as being the foundation on which the current traditional view of Bonner's work and character has been based, a tradition that has only been broken down by the research of the past century. A man so regarded could expect small consideration when the death of Mary (17th November, 1558) placed Elizabeth on the throne, and the new queen's attitude to the bishop was marked at their first interview, when she refused him her hand to kiss. From 24th June, 1559, the Mass was forbidden as well as all other services not in the Book of Common Prayer, but long before that date the Mass ceased in most London churches, though Bonner took care that in his cathedral at least it should still be celebrated. On 30th May, Il Schifanoya, envoy from the Court of Mantua, wrote: "The Council sent twice or thrice to summon the Bishop of London to give him orders to remove the service of the Mass and of the Divine Office in that Church, but he answered them intrepidly 'I possess three things soul, body, and property. Of the two latter, you can dispose at your pleasure, but as to the soul, God alone can command me.' He remained constant about body and property, and again to-day he has been called to the Council, but I do not yet know what they said to him." (Phillips, op. cit. infra, 103.) As a matter of fact, they had ordered him to resign the bishopric, which he refused to do, adding that he preferred death. He was then deprived of the office and went for a time to Westminster Abbey. On 20th April, 1560, he was sent as a prisoner to the Marshalsea. During the next two years representatives of the reforming party frequently clamored for the execution of Bonner and the other imprisoned bishops. When the Parliament of 1563 met, a new Act was passed by which the first refusal of the oath of royal supremacy was praemunire, the second, high treason. The bishops had refused the oath once, so that by this Act, which became law on 10th April, their next refusal of the oath might be followed by their death. On 24th April, the Spanish Ambassador writes that Bonner and some others had been already called upon to take the oath. Partly owing to the intervention of the emperor and partly to an outbreak of the plague, no further steps seem to have been taken at the time. A year later, on 29th April, 1564 the oath was again tendered to Bonner by Horne, the Anglican Bishop of Winchester. This he firmly refused but the interference of the Spanish ambassador and his own readiness of resource saved immediate consequences. Being well skilled both in civil and canon law, he raised the point that Home, who offered him the oath, was not qualified to do so, as he had not been validly consecrated bishop. This challenged the new hierarchy as to the validity of their orders, and so strong was Bonner's case that the Government evaded meeting it, and the proceedings commenced against him were adjourned time after time. Four times a year for three years he was forced to in the courts at Westminster only to be further remanded. The last of these appearances took place in the Michaelmas term of 1568, so that the last year of the bishop's life was spent in the peace of his prison. His demeanor during his long imprisonment was remarkable for unfailing cheerfulness, and even Jewel describes him in a letter as "a most courteous man and gentlemanly both in his manners and appearance." (Zurich Letters, I, 34). The end came on 5th September, 1569, when he died in the Marshalsea. The Anglican Bishop of London wrote to Cecil to say that he had been buried in St. George's churchyard, Southwark, but if this was so the coffin was soon secretly removed to Copford, near Colchester, where it was buried under the north side of the altar. Sander, Bridgewater, and other contemporary writers attributed to Bonner and the other bishops who died in prison the honor of martyrdom: in vinculis obierunt martyres. On the walls of the English College, Rome, an inscription recording the death of the eleven bishops, but without naming them, found a place among the paintings of the martyrs. In a work quoted below the Catholic tradition with regard to these bishops has been ably set forth by Rev. George Phillips, avowedly for the purpose of promoting their beatification. Bishop Bonner differs from the others in this respect, that owing to the prominent part circumstances compelled him to play in the persecution, he was attacked during life with a hatred which has followed him even after death, so that in English history few names have been so execrated and vilified as his. Tardy justice is now being done to his memory by historians, Catholic and Protestant alike, yet there remains immense prejudice against his memory in the popular mind. Nor could this be otherwise in face of the calumnies that have been. repeated by tradition. The reckless charges of Bale and Foxe were repeated by Burnet Hume, and others, who join in representing him as an inhuman persecutor, "a man of profligate manners and of a brutal character, who seemed to rejoice in the torments of the unhappy sufferers" (Hume c. xxxvii). The first historian of note to challenge this verdict was the Catholic, Lingard, though even he wrote in a very tentative way and it was by an Anglican historian, S.R. Maitland, that anything like justice was first done to Bonner. This writer's analysis remains the most discriminating summary of the bishop's character. "Setting aside declamation and looking at the details of facts left by those who may be called, if people please, Bonner's victims, and their friends, we find, very consistently maintained, the character of a man, straightforward and hearty, familiar and humorous, sometimes rough, perhaps coarse, naturally hot tempered, but obviously (by the testimony of his enemies) placable and easily intreated, capable of bearing most patiently much intemperate and insolent language, much reviling and low abuse directed against himself personally, against his order, and against those peculiar doctrines and practices of his church for maintaining which he had himself suffered the loss of all things, and borne long imprisonment. At the same time not incapable of being provoked into saying harsh and passionate things, but much more frequently meaning nothing by the threatenings and slaughter which he breathed out, than to intimidate those on whose ignorance and simplicity argument seemed to be thrown a way-in short, we can scarcely read with attention any one of the cases detailed by those who were no friends of Bonner, without seeing in him a judge who (even if we grant that he was dispensing bad laws badly) was obviously desirous to save the prisoner's life." This verdict has been generally followed by later historians, and the last word has been added, for the present, in. the recently published volume on the Reformation, in the "Cambridge Modern History" planned by Lord Acton (1903) where the statement is expressly made: "It is now generally admitted that the part played by Bonner was not that attributed to him by Foxe, of a cruel bigot who exulted in sending his victims to the stake. The number of those put to death in his diocese of London was undoubtedly disproportionately large, but this would seem to have been more the result of the strength of the reforming element in the capital and in Essex than of the employment of exceptional rigor while the evidence also shows that he himself patiently dealt with many of the Protestants, and did his best to induce them to renounce what he conscientiously believed to be their errors."

Bonner's writings include "Responsum et Exhortatio in laudem Sacerdotii" (1553) "Articles to be enquired of in the General Visitation of Edmund Bishop of London" (1554) "Homelies sette forth by Eddmune Byshop of London, . . . to be read within his diocese of London of all Parsons, vycars and curates, unto their parishioners upon Sondayes and holy days" (1555). There was also published under his name a catechism, probably written by his chaplains, Harpsfield and Pendleton, entitled "A profitable and necessary doctrine" (1554, 2d ed. 1555). He also wrote the preface to Bishop Gardiner's "Book of Obedience" (1534).

State Papers of Henry VIII DODD, Church History (London, 1737), Part III, Bk, II, art,3 MAITLAND, Essays on the Reformation in England (London, 1849), Essays III, XVII, XVIII, XX GILLOW, Bib. Diktovať. Eng. Kat. (London, 1885), I, 260-265 GAIRDNER in Dict. Nat. Biog. (London, 1886), V, 356-360 BRIDGETT AND KNOX, Queen Eliz. and the Cath. Hierarchy (London, 1889) STONE, History of Mary I (London, 1901) PHILLIPS, Extinction of the Ancient Hierarchy London, 1905).


Possible slave cemetery on UWG campus stirs debate over buried history

Lord knows how many times in the 113-year-old history of the University of West Georgia that students have picnicked, played Frisbee or casually walked across a small, grassy plot of land in the middle of the campus.

The school, 50 miles west of Atlanta, was once the home of Thomas Bonner, one of the 19th century’s largest Carroll County slaveholders. In 1906, the former Bonner Plantation was turned over to the state where it eventually became the core of what today is the university.

Few visible remnants of the plantation remain, most notably the Bonner House, which serves as the university’s welcome center. But recent archaeological tests suggest the long-forgotten remains of Bonner’s slaves might be buried here.

If true, UWG will be added to a long list of colleges and communities who find themselves challenged with questions on how to deal with newly discovered remains of former slaves and Reconstruction-era African Americans.

There had always been whispers that there may have been a slave cemetery on campus near Melson Hall, the oldest building on campus. As far back as the 1940s, Abe Bonner, a former slave who died in 1947 at the age of 107, pointed to a spot near Melson Hall and said slaves were buried there.

“When you have been here a while you hear stories,” said Ann McCleary, who has taught history at the school for 22 years. “But you don’t know unless you look. The idea of doing an archaeological study and trying to figure it out was a good one.”

Last fall, at a community meeting, the possibility of the cemetery came up again so the school commissioned a study. In December, tests revealed something in the ground on a plot of land the size of an average backyard next to Melson Hall.

“It is actually really exciting for a lot of different reasons, particularly the possibility of knowing a little bit more about what is there and doing more with the information,” said Yves-Rose Porcena, the university’s chief diversity officer. “When we found out, the leadership was very clear that we wanted to do this the right way. No matter the process.”

UWG is still in the early stages of figuring out what they have in the ground and what to do with it.

Ya’Ron Brown, who graduated from the university in 2007 with a master’s degree, said he hopes UWG, Carrollton and the county make a concerted effort to honor any slaves buried on campus and look at restitution for any families who worked the land.

“It is not surprising that slaves would be buried unmarked because they were seen as property, not people,” said Brown, who now lives in the Atlanta area.

In April, students at Georgetown University voted to increase their tuition by $27.20 per semester to set up a fund to pay reparations to the descendants of 272 slaves sold by the Washington, D.C. school in 1832 to pay off college debts.

Students and graduates of the University of Georgia also are exploring ways to address a 2015 discovery of 100 remains in an area on campus known to be a former slave burial site.

Barometers of black communities

It may never be known how many hidden or paved-over slave burial sites and black cemeteries are scattered across the South. But they keep getting discovered.

“After Reconstruction, there were thousands of black communities that sprung up and they all had cemeteries,” said Nadia K Orton, a genealogist and public historian who has studied and written extensively about the subject. “There is always a black cemetery somewhere. But they were never protected. So, this will continue to happen.”

Orton, who began writing about cemeteries as an extension of a family genealogical project, sees them as a barometer of the local black community. She said through decades of neglect, African American burial grounds have become endangered sites as thousands of them have been destroyed by development, while many others are overgrown, abandoned and forgotten.

In 2015, for example, in tony Buckhead, the forgotten and overgrown Piney Grove Cemetery was on the verge of being paved over to build a new set of townhomes. Plotted in 1826, when Buckhead was wilderness, most of the 300 people buried there were former slaves or later members of the Piney Grove Missionary Baptist Church.

The church was condemned in 1948, and members met under the trees or in friends’ homes until a new church was built in 1950. That church partially collapsed in a storm in the 1990s and the Buckhead Coalition helped pay for its demolition. The townhomes were eventually built, but the burial sites were preserved.

“With these cemeteries, the people have been removed, displaced and died off,” Orton said. “Where did the communities go?”

Who was Thomas Bonner?

Thomas Bonner was the scion of a prominent family that owned hundreds of acres across Carroll County with plenty of slaves to tend to the land.

In 1860 Bonner was the county’s fourth-largest slave owner with 24 on 350 acres, according to documents provided to The Atlanta Journal-Constitution by the Georgia Historical Society. His brother Zadock was third with 32. Three other Bonner men had a total of 39 slaves.

After the Civil War, McCleary, who is also UWG’s co-director of the Center for Public History, said Bonner moved to Alabama and his former slaves were disbursed across the county.

The university also is researching if the plot was used after the war as a burial site for free blacks.

“It is not a huge site right now and we don’t know how large it is,” McCleary said. “I don’t expect it to be huge. With the number of slaves Bonner had, I don’t think that is going to translate into a lot of burials.”

By the early 20th century, Bonner’s land had been sold to the state as the site of the Fourth District Agricultural and Mechanical School.

In 1955 and 1956, every senior at Carrollton’s all-black George Washington Carver High School applied to what was then West Georgia College. All were rejected because of the color of their skin.

The first black students didn’t arrive on campus until the fall of 1965, but by 1994, the school became the first predominately white college in Georgia to hire a person of color as its president. In 2002, as a form of reparations, the university apologized to the Carver students and set up a scholarship fund for their descendants.

“The school has a great history of leading and closing the achievement gap on issues of diversity,” said Porcena, who also runs the campus-wide Center for Diversity and Inclusion.

Of the 13,733 students on campus today, 35% are black. That’s lower than schools like Georgia State and Clayton State, but higher than the statewide average of 26%.

“The black community and the black students are very tight,” said Jaylin Evans, a 22-year-old senior from Detroit, who is the president of the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity chapter on campus. “But the campus is very segregated. It is like we don’t pay attention to white students and they don’t pay attention to us. We both exist in our own worlds and that is cool.”

Of honor and respect

Under advice from the Georgia Office of the State Archaeologist, the school hired Southern Research, Historical Preservation Consultants Inc. to do the archaeological survey. After several rounds of ground and soil strata testing, including the use of ground-penetrating radar, they found anomalies in the soil suggesting possible graves.

Archaeologists carefully removed the top 12-18 inches of soil from the plot until the tops of possible grave shafts were recognized through the variance in soil type. The university says no remains have been disturbed.

After the discovery, the university began contacting descendants of people enslaved by Bonner who could possibly be buried there, including relatives of Abe Bonner. While there are several white Bonners still in the Carrollton area, the school says it has not identified any direct descendants of Thomas Bonner.

“The school will want to honor and respect those who are buried there,” Porcena said. “This is a topic that could have been very divisive. But we have captured something. We are on the right path.”

Porcena said it is still too early to figure out what that will look like, but Orton, the genealogist, is hopeful that UWG will do the right thing in recognizing and honoring those buried at the site.

“Even though it wasn’t seen as sacred, because someone knew they were there when they built over it, they have an opportunity to redress that wrong by making it a memorial park or putting up a monument,” Orton said. “And by finding out who they are. Honor them by who they were.”


Keeping Watch

Morgan Clark, first mate of the Anderson, kept watching the Fitzgerald on the radar set to calculate her distance from some other vessels near Whitefish Point. He kept losing sight of the Fitzgerald on the radar from sea return, meaning that seas were so high they interfered with the radar reflection. First mate Clark spoke to the Fitzgerald one last time, about 7:10 pm:

“Fitzgerald, this is the Anderson. Have you checked down?”

“Yes, we have.”

“Fitzgerald, we are about 10 miles behind you, and gaining about 1 1/2 miles per hour. Fitzgerald, there is a target 19 miles ahead of us. So the target would be 9 miles on ahead of you.”

“Well,” answered Captain McSorley, “Am I going to clear?”

“Yes, he is going to pass to the west of you.”

“Well, fine.”

“By the way, Fitzgerald, how are you making out with your problems?” asked Clark.

“We are holding our own.”

“Okay, fine, I’ll be talking to you later.” Clark signed off.

The radar signal, or “pip” of the Fitzgerald kept getting obscured by sea return. And around 7:15 pm, the pip was lost again, but this time, did not reappear. Clark called the Fitzgerald again at about 7:22 pm. There was no answer.

Captain Cooper contacted the other ships in the area by radio asking if anyone had seen or heard from the Fitzgerald. The weather had cleared dramatically. His written report states:

“At this time I became very concerned about the Fitzgerald – couldn’t see his lights when we should have. I then called the William Clay Ford to ask him if my phone was putting out a good signal and also if perhaps the Fitzgerald had rounded the point and was in shelter, after a negative report I called the Soo Coast Guard because I was sure something had happened to the Fitzgerald. The Coast Guard were at this time trying to locate a 16-foot boat that was overdue.”

With mounting apprehension, Captain Cooper called the Coast Guard once again, about 8:00 pm, and firmly expressed his concern for the welfare of the Fitzgerald. The Coast Guard then initiated its search for the missing ship. By that time the Anderson had reached the safety of Whitefish Bay to the relief of all aboard. But the Coast Guard called Captain Cooper back at 9:00 pm:

“Anderson, this is Group Soo. What is your present position?”

“We’re down here, about two miles off Parisienne Island right now…the wind is northwest forty to forty-five miles here in the bay.”

“Is it calming down at all, do you think?”

“In the bay it is, but I heard a couple of the salties talking up there, and they wish they hadn’t gone out.”

“Do you think there is any possibility and you could…ah…come about and go back there and do any searching?”

“Ah…God, I don’t know…ah…that…that sea out there is tremendously large. Ah…if you want me to, I can, but I’m not going to be making any time I’ll be lucky to make two or three miles an hour going back out that way.”

“Well, you’ll have to make a decision as to whether you will be hazarding your vessel or not, but you’re probably one of the only vessels right now that can get to the scene. We’re going to try to contact those saltwater vessels and see if they can’t possibly come about and possibly come back also…things look pretty bad right now it looks like she may have split apart at the seams like the Morrell did a few years back.”

“Well, that’s what I been thinking. But we were talking to him about seven and he said that everything was going fine. He said that he was going along like an old shoe no problems at all.”

“Well, again, do you think you could come about and go back and have a look in the area?”

“Well, I’ll go back and take a look, but God, I’m afraid I’m going to take a hell of a beating out there… I’ll turn around and give ‘er a whirl, but God, I don’t know. I’ll give it a try.”

“That would be good.”

“Do you realize what the conditions are out there?”

No reply from the Coast Guard. Captain Cooper tries again.

“Affirmative. From what your reports are I can appreciate the conditions. Again, though, I have to leave that decision up to you as to whether it would be hazarding your vessel or not. If you think you can safely go back up to the area, I would request that you do so. But I have to leave the decision up to you.”

“I’ll give it a try, but that’s all I can do.”

The Anderson turned out to be the primary vessel in the search, taking the lead. With the ship pounding and rolling badly, the crew of the Anderson discovered the Fitzgerald’s two lifeboats and other debris but no sign of survivors. Only one other vessel, the William Clay Ford, was able to leave the safety of Whitefish Bay to join in the search at the time. The Coast Guard launched a fixed-wing HU-16 aircraft at 10 pm and dispatched two cutters, the Naugatuck and the Woodrush. The Naugatuck arrived at 12:45 pm on November 11, and the Woodrush arrived on November 14, having journeyed all the way from Duluth, Minnesota.

The Coast Guard conducted an extensive and thorough search. On November 14, a U.S. Navy plane equipped with a magnetic anomaly detector located a strong contact 17 miles north-northwest of Whitefish Point. During the following three days, the Coast Guard cutter Woodrush, using a sidescan sonar, located two large pieces of wreckage in the same area. Another sonar survey was conducted November 22-25.


Supremacy and Survival: The English Reformation

Edmund Bonner, the former bishop of London (deposed by the authority of Elizabeth I), died in Marshalsea Prison on September 5, 1569. There is some argument that he should be considered a "martyr in chains" because he refused the Elizabethan Oaths of Supremacy and Uniformity over and over again. Eamon Duffy in his Fires of Faith: Catholic England under Mary Tudor endeavors to bring some balance to our understanding of Bonner's actions during the reign of Mary I to clear away some of the bias left by Bale and Foxe, but his actions during Henry VIII's reign bear some scrutiny too, as the Catholic Encyclopedia explains his promotion to Bishop of London after good service to the king:

Elected in November, 1539, he returned, and was consecrated 4th April, 1540. Almost his first duty was to try heretics under Henry's Act of the Six Articles, and though his action seems to have been only official, accusations of excessive cruelty and bias against the accused were spread broadcast by his enemies, and from the first he seems to have been unpopular in London. During the years 1542-43 he was again abroad in Spain and Germany as ambassador to the emperor, at the end of which time he returned to London. The death of the king on 28th January 1547, proved the turning point in his career Hitherto he had shown himself entirely subservient to the sovereign, supporting him in the matter of the divorce, approving of the suppression of the religious houses, taking the oath of Supremacy which Fisher and More refused at the cost of life itself, and accepting schismatical consecration and institution. But while acting in this way, he had always resisted the innovations of the Reformers, and held to the doctrines of the old religion. Therefore from the first he put himself in opposition to the religious changes introduced by Protector Somerset and Archbishop Cranmer.


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