Aké boli Vianoce v 13 kolóniách?

Aké boli Vianoce v 13 kolóniách?

Aj keď si väčšina Američanov dnes nevie predstaviť vianočné obdobie bez Santa Clausa, vianočných stromčekov, zavesených pančúch a rozdávania darčekov, väčšina týchto tradícií začala až v 19. storočí. V predrevolučnej vojne sa ľudia žijúci v pôvodných 13 kolóniách prudko rozchádzali v otázke, ako osláviť Vianoce-a dokonca ani toho, či ich vôbec oslavovať.

ČÍTAJTE VIAC: 25 vianočných tradícií a ich pôvod

Korene koloniálnej vianočnej debaty

Angličtí osadníci, ktorí cestovali do Nového sveta, priniesli debatu cez Vianoce so sebou. Koncom 16. storočia sa skupina protestantských reformátorov známa ako Puritans snažila očistiť anglickú cirkev a očistiť ju od rímskokatolíckych tradícií, ktoré považovala za prehnané.

Patrili sem Vianoce, ktoré mali korene v pohanskom rímskom zimnom festivale Saturnalia, ako aj v severskom sviatku Yule. V tom čase oslavy Vianoc v Anglicku trvali takmer dva týždne - odo dňa narodenia Ježiša Krista, 25. decembra do dvanásteho dňa, 6. januára - a pozostávali z hlučných osláv vrátane hodovania, hazardu, pitia a maškarných plesov.

ČÍTAJTE VIAC: Saturnalia

Vianoce v Jamestowne a Plymouthe

Rovnako ako tí, ktorých zanechali v Anglicku, aj osadníci, ktorí prišli do Nového sveta, sa rozchádzali v názore, či a ako oslavovať Vianoce.

Pre osadníkov, ktorí prišli do Virginie v roku 1607, boli Vianoce dôležitým sviatkom. Aj keď oslavy mohli byť obmedzené, vzhľadom na drsnú realitu života v bojujúcej novej osade Jamestown ju zachovali ako posvätnú príležitosť a deň odpočinku. Podľa historičky Nancy Egloffovej, historičky osady Jamestown, boli v 20. a 30. rokoch minulého storočia Vianoce ustanovené ako meradlo v legislatívnom kalendári kolónie vo Virgínii. Zákony o knihách z roku 1631 napríklad uvádzali, že kostoly sa majú stavať v oblastiach, ktoré to potrebujú, pred „sviatkom narodenia nášho Spasiteľa Krista“.

Naproti tomu kolónia Pútnici z Plymouthu patrila k puritánskej sekte známej ako separatisti. K svojim prvým Vianociam v Novom svete pristupovali len ako k ďalšiemu pracovnému dňu. Guvernér William Bradford vo svojom denníku poznamenal, že kolonisti začali stavať prvý dom kolónie 25. decembra 1620.

Nasledujúci rok, keď skupina novo prichádzajúcich osadníkov odmietla pracovať na Štedrý deň, Bradford ich pustil z háku, kým sa nestali „lepšie informovanými“. Ale urobil pevnú čiaru potom, čo ich našiel hrať hry, kým všetci ostatní pracovali.

"Ak urobili z ich udržiavania [Vianoc] záležitosť oddanosti, nech si nechajú svoje domy," napísal Bradford. "V uliciach by sa však nemalo hrať ani hrať."

SLEDUJTE: Roanoke: Hľadanie stratenej kolónie na HISTORY Vault

V Massachusetts urobili puritáni Vianoce nezákonnými

Horké rozdiely medzi puritánmi a anglikánmi by v konečnom dôsledku viedli k prvej anglickej občianskej vojne (1642-46), po ktorej sa puritáni dostali k moci a zakázali oslavy Vianoc, Veľkej noci a dní rôznych svätých. Podľa ich prísneho pohľadu na Bibliu bola svätá iba sobota. Zvlášť neprijateľné boli Vianoce so svojimi pohanskými koreňmi.

Kolonia Massachusetts Bay, založená v roku 1630 skupinou puritánskych utečencov z Anglicka, nasledovala tento príklad. Podľa zákona prijatého v roku 1659 „za kohokoľvek, kto bude prítomný v deň Vianoc alebo podobne, buď znášaním práce, hodovaním alebo iným spôsobom“, bude uložená pokuta vo výške päť šilingov.

V roku 1681, keď sa skončili anglické občianske vojny a obnovila sa monarchia, Massachusetts ustúpil rastúcemu tlaku a zrušil niektoré zo svojich najprísnejších zákonov vrátane zákazu Vianoc. Puritánsky odpor voči Vianociam bol však počas koloniálneho obdobia silný: Väčšina podnikov zostala často otvorená 25. decembra a Massachusetts oficiálne uznal sviatok až v polovici 19. storočia.

ČÍTAJTE VIAC: Keď Massachusetts zakázal Vianoce

Kolonisti importovali anglické tradície

Napriek puritánskemu úsiliu mnohí kolonisti v Novom Anglicku oslavovali Vianoce a dovážali anglické zvyky, ako napríklad pitie, hodovanie, múmie a plachtenie. Mummovanie alebo „maskovanie“ zahŕňalo ľudí, ktorí sa obliekali do kostýmov a chodili od domu k domu, púšťali si hry a inak vystupovali. Wassailers tiež cestovali medzi domami, popíjali a spievali, keď prechádzali okolo misiek plných koreneného piva alebo vareného vína.

V stredných a južnejších kolóniách, kde bola väčšia náboženská rozmanitosť, predstavili Anglikáni, rímskokatolíci, luteráni, Moravania a ďalšie skupiny do Nového sveta svoje vlastné vianočné tradície, náboženské aj svetské.

Zďaleka nie je dnes príležitosť zameraná na deti, vianočné obdobie bolo plné aktivít pre dospelých, ako sú večierky, hody, poľovačky, plesy a-samozrejme-bohoslužby. Ľudia zdobili domy a kostoly vždyzelenými rastlinami, ako sú cesmína, brečtan, vavrín a imelo, obľúbené dvojice, ktoré hľadajú bozk na dovolenku.

Okrem múmovania a plachtenia na lodi si hostia v južných kolóniách, ako napríklad Virginia, užívali koledy, spievali obľúbené anglické obľúbené skladby ako „The First Noel“, „God Rest You Merry Gentlemen“ a „The Holly and the Ivy“.

Napriek tomu, že sa Vianoce stali v polovici 18. storočia relatívne bežnou oslavou, v čase revolučnej vojny neboli oficiálne uznané ako sviatky. V roku 1789 kongres zašiel tak ďaleko, že zorganizoval svoje prvé zasadnutie na Štedrý deň.

Trvalo by takmer storočie, kým Kongres vyhlási Vianoce za štátny sviatok, čo sa im nakoniec podarilo v roku 1870. V tom čase sa tradície ako vianočný stromček, Santa Claus a rozdávanie darov dostali do amerického hlavného prúdu a pomohli premeniť 25. december na rodinnú dovolenku, ktorú dnes poznáme a milujeme.

ČÍTAJTE VIAC: Niektoré z prvých vianočných pohľadníc boli morbídne a strašidelné


Vzdelávanie

Kolónie v Novom Anglicku mali väčšinu puritánov. Puritáni si vážili vzdelanie, nielen kvôli čítaniu Svätej Biblie, ale aj kvôli hospodárskemu rastu, ktorý priniesol. Južné kolónie boli dosť vidiecke a vzdelávanie išlo bokom. Deti bohatých kolonistov však vychovávali súkromní tútori. Harvardská univerzita bola založená v Massachusetts v roku 1636 a na konci storočia bola vo Virgínii založená Vysoká škola pre Williama a Mary. V polovici 17. storočia sa v Amerike začalo zakladať univerzity.

Medzitým Briti začali s ťažkými daňami v kolóniách, aby sa zotavili z francúzskych útokov. Zdanenie do značnej miery ovplyvnilo život v kolóniách. V roku 1773 začal bostonský čajový večierok revolučné činy proti britskej vláde. 19. októbra 1781 sa Briti vzdali v Yorktowne a Amerika bola oficiálne nezávislá. Tak vznikli nezávislé Spojené štáty americké.


Keď Američania zakázali Vianoce

Ako prví osadníci oslavovali Vianoce? Oni nie. Pútnici, ktorí prišli do Ameriky v roku 1620, boli prísnymi puritánmi s pevným názorom na náboženské sviatky, ako sú Vianoce a Veľká noc. Tvrdili, že Písmo nepomenovalo žiadny sviatok okrem sabatu, a samotný koncept „svätých dní“ naznačoval, že niektoré dni nie sú sväté. „Tí, pre ktorých sú všetky dni sväté, nemôžu mať žiadny sviatok,“ znela bežná puritánska zásada. Puritáni boli k Vianociam obzvlášť pohŕdaví, prezývali ich „Foolstide“ a v 17. a 18. storočí zakázali svojmu stádu akékoľvek oslavy. Prvého 25. decembra osadníci strávili v kolónii v Plymouthe a pracovali na poli ako každý iný deň. V nasledujúcom roku skupinu ne puritánskych robotníkov prichytených pri oslavách Vianoc hrou „stoole-ball“-raného predchodcu baseballu-potrestal guvernér William Bradford. „Moje svedomie vás nemôže nechať hrať, kým všetci ostatní pracujú,“ povedal im.

Prečo nemali puritáni radi Vianoce? Mali niekoľko dôvodov, vrátane toho, že to nepochádza z kresťanských sviatkov. Vyššie vrstvy v starovekom Ríme oslavovali 25. december ako narodeniny boha slnka Mitry. Dátum padol presne uprostred Saturnalia, mesačného sviatku venovaného jedlu, pitiu a radovánkam, a pápež Július I. si údajne vybral ten deň na oslavu Kristovho narodenia ako spôsobu kooptácie pohanských rituálov. Okrem toho považovali puritáni za historicky nepresné umiestniť Mesiášov príchod 25. decembra. Mysleli si, že Ježiš sa narodil niekedy v septembri.

Ich námietky boli teda teologické? Nie výlučne. Hlavným dôvodom, prečo puritáni nemali radi Vianoce, bolo, že to boli búrlivo obľúbené sviatky v neskorom stredoveku v Anglicku. Bohatí majitelia pôdy každý rok otvárali dvere chudobným a dávali im jedlo a pitie ako akt lásky. Najchudobnejší muž vo farnosti dostal meno „Lord of Misrule“ a bohatí na neho čakali pri hostinách, ktoré často prechádzali do oplzlej opitosti. Takáto dekadencia nikdy nezapôsobila na náboženských puristov. „Muži dehonestujú Krista viac ako 12 dní Vianoc,“ napísal duchovný zo 16. storočia Hugh Latimer, „než všetkých ostatných 12 mesiacov navyše.“

Kedy vyhral ten pohľad? Puritáni v anglickom parlamente odstránili Vianoce ako štátny sviatok v roku 1645 v dôsledku rozšíreného predvianočného nálady. Osadníci v Novom Anglicku zašli ešte ďalej a v roku 1659 úplne zakázali vianočné oslavy. Každý, kto sa prichytil pri vyhýbaní sa pracovným povinnostiam alebo pri hodovaní, bol nútený zaplatiť značnú pokutu vo výške päť šilingov. Vianoce sa vrátili do Anglicka v roku 1660, ale v Novom Anglicku zostali zakázané až do 80. rokov 16. storočia, keď sa korunke podarilo v Massachusetts získať väčšiu kontrolu nad svojimi poddanými. V roku 1686 kráľovský guvernér kolónie Sir Edmund Andros sponzoroval vianočnú bohoslužbu v Bostonskom mestskom dome. V strachu z násilných reakcií puritánskych osadníkov bol Andros pri modlitbe a spievaní vianočných piesní sprevádzaný červenými kabátmi.

Oľutovali konečne puritáni? Vôbec nie. V bojkote Vianoc v Massachusetts pokračovali desaťročia. Cotton Mather, najvplyvnejší náboženský vodca Nového Anglicka, povedal svojmu stádu v roku 1712, že „sviatok Kristovho narodenia sa trávi vyžívaním sa v kockovaní, mykaní, maskovaní a všetkej slobodnej povesti. Šialenou veselosťou, dlhým jedením, tvrdým pitím , oplzlými hrami, hrubým nadšením! “ Európski osadníci v iných amerických kolóniách to naďalej oslavovali, ako zbožný sviatok, tak aj čas na radovánky. Philadelphian Benjamin Franklin vo svojom Almanachu chudobného Richarda z roku 1739 napísal o Vianociach: „Ó, požehnaná sezóna! Milovaní svätými a hriešnikmi / Na dlhé pobožnosti alebo na dlhšie večere.“


Vianoce v Anglicku a Virgínii 17. storočia

Počas “Christmastide vo Virgínii ” v Jamestown Settlement sa návštevníci môžu dozvedieť o vianočných zvykoch v Anglicku zo 17. storočia a o tom, ako sa sezóna dala pozorovať v ťažkých prvých rokoch prvej americkej stálej anglickej kolónie.

Angličania, ktorí prišli do Jamestownu v roku 1607, spolu so svojimi priateľmi a príbuznými v Anglicku považovali Vianoce za jedno z najzvláštnejších období v roku. V Anglicku trvala sezóna asi dva týždne, od 25. decembra do dvanásteho dňa 6. januára. V tomto období sa oslavy len hemžili a málo práce sa vykonalo.

Vianočné obdobie sa vyvinulo zo stredne zimného germánskeho sviatku Yule a rímskych saturnálií, v ktorom sa konalo pitie, hranie hier a všeobecné radovánky, domy sa zdobili zeleňou, vymieňali sa darčeky a ľudia sa obliekali do kostýmov. Anglické vianočné sviatky 17. storočia vyplynuli z uvalenia sviatku Narodenia Pána na pohanské sviatky v polovici zimy a došlo k zmiešaniu kresťanských a pohanských rituálov.

Súčasní spisovatelia vniesli viac svetla do sekulárneho než do náboženského charakteru sviatku 17. storočia. Podľa správy Johna Taylora z roku 1631 sa sviatok Vianoc začal návštevou kostola. Potom „niektorí išli ku kartám, niektorí spievali Carrolly, mnoho strašidelných piesní a niektorí strávili dlhú noc rozprávaním zimných príbehov…. Potom prišli slúžky s Wassellom, veselým Wassellom, koláčmi, bielym koláčom a syrom, koláčmi a ďalším mäsom. Títo boli preč, veselí mladíci a rovinári zaoberajúci sa pluhovskými swaines, ktorí boli unavení z kariet, začali tancovať, aby mi ukázali niekoľko Gambols, niektorí sa odvážili zlomiť svoje holene, aby som sa stal športovým - niektorí ako oparenie svojich pier, aby sa chytili jabĺk uviazaných na koniec palice so zapálenou sviečkou na druhej strane - niektorí podstrčili divokú kobylu horúcimi kúskami a podobne. “Angličania sa na sezónu pripravovali tým, že veselo vyzdobili svoje domovy a kostoly zeleňou - cezmínou, bobkom, rozmarínom, brečtanom a niekedy imelo, ktoré bolo v niektorých oblastiach ťažké získať. Angličania a ženy niekedy namiesto imela zhromaždili cezmínu a iné zelené do „bozkávajúceho sa kríka“ zaveseného zo stropu. Na Štedrý večer sa niesli v vianočnom logu sprevádzanom veľkou okázalosťou a zapálili guľatinu značkou uloženou v denníku z minulého roka.

Na dvore a v mestách pripravili hráči hry a masky, alebo predstavenia s tancom, piesňou, podívanou a kostýmom. Master of Revels at Court sa niekoľko týždňov zamestnával a vyberal si spoločnosti hráčov, ktorí budú hrať pre Kinga. Majster si tiež musel byť istý, že kostýmy, sviečky a rekvizity sú pripravené na hry. Masky zapájali hostí do tancov s prestrojenými interpretmi a vďaka elegantnému oblečeniu hostí boli masky najpozoruhodnejšie zo všetkých dvorských radovánok.

V rámci prípravy na sezónu mnohé mestá označili za Pána zmätkov, „veľkého kapitána všetkej neplechy“, ktorý sa s 20 a viac vybranými „chtivými vnútornosťami“ vyzdobil žltými a zelenými šatkami, stuhami, šnúrkami, prsteňmi a šperkami , a pokračoval mestom na Štedrý deň. Koncom 16. storočia Philip Stubbes z puritánskych smerov rozprával o tom, ako táto „pohanská spoločnosť“ pochodovala „smerom k kostolu a na cintorín, pričom ich potrubie trhalo, bubnovalo, bubnalo, pahýle tancovali, zvončeky im trúbili, vreckovky sa hojdali okolo hlavy. ako šialenci, ich hobby kone a ďalšie príšery, ktoré sa hádajú medzi koľajami. “ Stubbes a ďalší argumentovali ukončením nevkusnosti a radovánok, ktoré sa často spájali s Pánom Misrule a jeho mamičkami. Tento zvyk bol však v hlavách Angličanov všetkých tried natoľko zakorenený, že dokonca aj s nástupom puritánov k politickej moci v štyridsiatych rokoch 16. storočia pokusy o ovládanie vianočnej veselosti často zlyhali.

Napriek tomu, že Puritáni namietali proti oslavám Vianoc ako pohanskej radosti, zrejme mnohí urobili pri vianočných sviatkoch ústupky. Presbyteriáni v Škótsku z puritánskeho presvedčenia v roku 1583 v tejto krajine zakázali Vianoce, ale taký zákaz v Anglicku platil až v roku 1652 a potom bolo ťažké ho presadiť. Puritáni však naďalej vyjadrovali sťažnosti na používanie mletých koláčov a slivkových pudingov na Vianoce, pretože ich považovali za „popské“. V osade Plymouth v Novom svete v roku 1621 Pútnici, keď boli požiadaní o akúkoľvek prácu na Štedrý deň, odmietli. Neskôr toho istého dňa, keď ich našli hrať na uliciach, čo bolo údajne v rozpore s ich prísnym náboženským presvedčením, im bolo povedané, že „ak sa o jeho (vianočnom) udržiavaní starajú o oddanosť, nech si nechajú svoje domy, ale tam v uliciach by nemalo ísť o hranie hier, ani o zábavu, “hovorí William Bradford.

Najdôležitejšie pre všetky vianočné sviatky bolo hodovanie. Angličania milovali ich jedlo. Thomas Tusser vo svojich „Päťsto bodoch dobrej manželstva“ napísal:

Dobrý chlieb a dobrá drinka, dobrý sál v hale,
výpek, puding a mydla a celkovo dobrá horčica.
Včelí, baranie a bravčové mäso, strúhané koláče najlepších,
prasa, veale, hus a kapúna a morka, dobre sa suší
Syr, jablká a orechy, radostné koledy,
ako sa potom v krajine počíta s dobrým podvodom.

Pre tých, ktorí si to mohli dovoliť, kančia hlava tvorila stredobod stola, varená a ozdobená citrónom v ústach. Chudobnejšia krajina nahradila bravčové mäso, mäso ošípanej, varené a nakladané. Skartované alebo mleté ​​koláče slúžili ako špeciálna súčasť večere, rovnako ako biely chlieb a slivkový puding, vyrobené z hovädzieho mäsa, hrozienok, ríbezlí a chleba. Recept na šesť „Minst Pyes“ v štátnych novinách Jakuba I. vyzýval na pol kura múky, chrbát tučného barana, po dve kilá cukru, masla, hrozienok, ríbezlí, šesť vajec a korenia. Angličania si užívali moriaka, pôvodom zo Severnej Ameriky, odvtedy, čo ho Španieli začiatkom 16. storočia predstavili v Anglicku. Korenené pivá a vína sprevádzajú jedlá počas celej festivalovej sezóny.

K niektorým aktivitám, ktoré mali radi ľudia z vysokého i nízkeho postavenia, patrilo plachtenie a múmia, ktoré bolo možné vykonávať počas dvoch týždňov v rôznych časoch. Mummerské hry a procesie na Štedrý večer pozostávali z krojovaných postáv, ktoré chodili od domu k domu vystupovať. Wassailers tiež pochodovali do domov v mestách na Štedrý večer, Nový rok a v predvečer dvanástej noci, pričom tradične niesli misu wassail plnú koreneného piva, cukru a jabĺk a pri míňaní spievali pieseň na plachtenie:

Wassail! Wassail! Po celom meste
Náš toast je biely, náš pivo je hnedý,
Naša misa je vyrobená z maplínu
Všetci sme dobrí ľudia, pijem vám.

Angličania z tohto obdobia tiež dodržiavali zvyk oplachovania jabloní na Štedrý večer a Dvanástu noc, vzali misu jablčného muštu s toastom do sadu, položili kúsky toastov na konáre a liali mušt na korene stromov. Verilo sa, že to bude lákať stromy, aby v čase zberu prinášali bohatú úrodu.

K ďalším aktivitám, ktoré si počas vianočných sviatkov užili, patrili koledy, tanec a hry. Koledy pre sezónu sa objavili v stredoveku ako derivát francúzskych tanečných piesní. Stali sa piesňami ľudu a nemuseli ich nutne spievať profesionálne zbory. Populárne koledy mali témy ako kančia hlava, wassailing, uspávanky a narodenie Pána. Hazardné hry si užili ľudia všetkých vekových skupín, vrátane detí. Koncom 16. storočia záznamy ukazujú, že rodičia dávali svojim deťom malé peniaze na „hru“. K aktívnejším hrám patrili „kapucňa-slepý“ alebo „slepec-muž-buff“, „stolička-lopta“, podobné kriketu a „hot-coles“, v ktorých sa hráč so slepými očami pokúšal uhádnuť, kto mu klopkal na chrbát . Deti si užili skokovú žabku a odvážnu hru „snap-apple“, v ktorej sa hráč pokúšal zahryznúť do jablka, pripevneného na jednom konci palice, na ktorej druhom konci bola zapálená sviečka a palica bola zavesená na strop šnúrkou.

Na rozdiel od zvyku vymieňať si darčeky na Štedrý deň v 20. storočí, Angličania v 17. storočí darovali darčeky na Nový rok. Každý od kráľa Jakuba po najnižšieho roľníka dostal darčeky, ktoré siahali od potravín až po osobné veci, ako sú šperky, peniaze, knihy, rukavice, kapúny, koláče, jablká alebo pomaranče posiate klinčekmi, korením, orieškami a špendlíkmi, ktoré nájomníci darovali svojim domácim kapúnom chudobní dostávali almužnu a dary od jedla. Thomas Tusser vysvetlil:

Na Vianoce buď šťastný a ďakujem Bohu za všetko:
A hodujte susedov svojich pórov, veľkých s malými.

Hodovanie, hranie hier a radovánky pokračovali pravidelne až do dvanásteho dňa, keď sa konali špeciálne činnosti, ako je plachtenie, múmia a jedenie dvanásteho koláča, nabitého cukrom a cukrovinkami. Dvanásty deň alebo Zjavenie Pána ukončilo väčšinu slávností. V niektorých kostoloch sa slávil sviatok hviezdy, pripomínajúci návštevu mudrcov v Betleheme, a deň sa skončil radovaním a hodovaním.

Keď prví kolonisti opustili Anglicko, aby našli bohatstvo Nového sveta, vzali so sebou kultúru, ktorú v Anglicku poznali. Cestovatelia do Virginie strávili prvé Vianoce roku 1606 na palube svojich lodí na ceste do Nového sveta. Ich druhé Vianoce v roku 1607 neboli s najväčšou pravdepodobnosťou šťastné. Kapitána Johna Smitha v tom čase väznil na výsluch Powhatan, náčelník 32 kmeňov v Tidewater vo Virgínii. Smith išiel obchodovať s indiánmi za jedlo. Ak tí prví kolonisti v Jamestowne mali túžbu a záujem oslavovať, možno by nakrájali zeleninu a ozdobili ich vetvičkami cezmíny, brečtanu a imela. Po bohoslužbe v kostole mohli spáliť vianočný strom a zaspievať si niektoré zo svojich obľúbených kolied. Mohli by uvariť špeciálne jedlo zo zveriny, ustríc, rýb, ovsených vločiek a hrachu zo svojho spoločného obchodu, keby nebolo tak málo jedla. Večera by sa určite veľmi líšila od ich tradičných jedál doma, najmä prvé Vianoce. Bez rodín a s menej ako polovicou pôvodného počtu, ktorí sú ešte nažive, muselo byť ťažké byť veselý.

Nasledujúce Vianoce roku 1608 našli kolonistov v zúfalej situácii - chorých, hladných a zbedačených. Kapitán Smith a jeho muži opustili Jamestown na konci decembra, aby navštívili Powhatan vo Werowocomoco a pokúsili sa získať nejaké jedlo. Nepriaznivé počasie ich prinútilo zostať v indickom meste Kecoughtan (Hampton) „6 alebo 7 daies“. „Extrémny vietor, koryto, mráz a snowe nás prinútili stráviť Vianoce medzi záchranami, kde sme nikdy neboli viac veselí, ani sa neuživili množstvom dobrých ustríc, rýb, mäsa, divého faulu a dobrého chleba, ani nikdy nemal lepší požiar v Anglicku ako v drie warme dymových domoch Kecoughtanu. “

Napriek ťažkostiam sa zdá, že Angličania stále uchovávajú Vianoce ako náboženský sviatok. V roku 1610 William Strachey, tajomník kolónie vo Virgínii, zaznamenal „skutočnú správu o wracke a vykúpení sira Thomasa Gatesa Knighta: na a z Bermudských ostrovov“. Strachey opísal incident na Bermudách v roku 1609: „Na Štedrý večer, ako aj predtým, prvý október náš minister kázal zbožné kázanie, a keď sa skončilo, slávil prijímanie.“ Cestovatelia sa nakoniec dostali do Jamestownu v roku 1610.

Nasledovanie Decembera v Jamestowne bolo naďalej náročné. V zime roku 1609, tradične známej ako „čas hladovania“, zomrelo niekoľko zostávajúcich kolonistov vo veľkom počte. Život v Novom svete bol prinajmenšom neistá existencia. Vianočné oslavy však museli vstúpiť do myslí týchto kolonistov každý december. V 16. a 30. rokoch 16. storočia sa v kostole objavujú odkazy na Vianoce Stanovy ako celokalebo zákony Virginie vianočné obdobie slúžilo ako referenčný kalendár pre rôzne legislatívne činnosti. V roku 1631 napríklad zákony uvádzali, že kostoly sa majú stavať v oblastiach, kde chýbali alebo boli v stave rozkladu, a tak sa malo konať pred „sviatkom narodenia nášho Spasiteľa Krista“. Vianoce stále slúžili ako ústredný bod roka, aj keď je málo informácií o tom, ako sa oslavovali vo Virgínii v priebehu 17. storočia.

-“ Vianoce v Anglicku a Virgínii 17. storočia ” Nancy Egloff, historička osady Jamestown


Vianoce s prezidentmi

Vianoce s prezidentmi 1 Dodržiavanie Vianoc v Bielom dome pred dvadsiatym storočím nebolo oficiálnou udalosťou. Prvé rodiny zdobili dom skromne zeleňou a súkromne oslávili Yuletide s rodinou a priateľmi.

Vianoce v ranej Amerike: Pútnici a puritáni v Novom Anglicku nenašli žiadny biblický precedens pre verejné oslavy Vianoc (pripomeňme, že cieľom týchto skupín bolo zjednodušiť náboženské uctievanie a odstrániť všetky náboženské rituály a oslavy, ktoré nie sú v Biblii konkrétne citované ) v Biblii nie je stanovený žiadny dátum narodenia Krista, sviatok bol namiesto toho stanovený rímskou tradíciou, čo z neho robilo - podľa ich názoru - jeden z mnohých „pohanských“ sviatkov, ktoré boli vštepované do skorumpovanej cirkvi, ktorá ich prenasledovala , a ktoré oni a ďalší náboženskí vodcovia chceli reformovať. V dôsledku toho zostali Vianoce v Novom Anglicku pravidelným pracovným dňom. V roku 1659 Massachusetts v skutočnosti schválil predvianočný zákon, v ktorom sa vyhlásilo: „Každý, kto bude nájdený, ktorý bude pozorovať nejaký deň ako Vianoce. . . zaplatí za každý priestupok krajine päť šilingov ako pokutu. “ Zákon bol zrušený v roku 1681, ale sviatok stále neoslavovali náboženskí nekonformisti alebo disidenti (tj. Puritáni a pútnici), zvyčajne ho slávilo iba niekoľko anglikánov (neskorších biskupov), katolíkov a ďalších formálnejších alebo novoanglické rodiny s vysokou cirkevnou tradíciou. Až v tridsiatych a štyridsiatych rokoch 19. storočia sa v Novom Anglicku začali prijímať vianočné oslavy (predovšetkým kvôli vplyvu veľkých vianočných osláv v mestách ako New York)-aj keď až v roku 1870 v bostonských štátnych školách, nezvestná študentka na Štedrý deň mohla byť potrestaná alebo vylúčená. V osemdesiatych rokoch 19. storočia sa však vianočné oslavy v Novom Anglicku stali rovnako uznávanými ako v iných častiach krajiny. 2

Trivia vianočného stromčeka v Bielom dome:

  • V roku 1889 sa tradícia umiestnenia izbového ozdobeného stromčeka do Bieleho domu začala na Vianoce ráno počas predsedníctva Benjamina Harrisona.
  • V roku 1895 prvá dáma Frances Clevelandová vytvorila „technicky zdatný“ strom, keď zavesila na strom Bieleho domu elektrické svetlá (do Bieleho domu bola v roku 1891 zavedená elektrina).
  • 1901-1909, Teddy Roosevelt zakázal vianočný stromček z Bieleho domu z ekologických dôvodov.
  • V roku 1923 prezident Calvin Coolidge zahájil národnú ceremóniu rozsvietenia vianočného stromčeka, ktorá sa každoročne koná na trávniku v Bielom dome.
  • V roku 1929 prvá dáma Lou Henry Hoover zaviedla v Bielom dome zvyk zdobiť oficiálny (a nielen osobný) strom - tradíciu, ktorá zostala u prvých dám.
  • V roku 1953 Eisenhowers vyhľadal karty Hallmark, ktoré im pomohli pri vytváraní prezidentskej vianočnej karty - začiatku oficiálnej vianočnej karty v Bielom dome.
  • V roku 1954 sa každoročný obrad rozsvecovania vianočného stromčeka nazýva Priebeh mieru. Koná sa každoročne začiatkom decembra pri rozsvietení Národného vianočného stromčeka a zahŕňa vystúpenia obľúbených zabávačov pred rozsvietením Národného vianočného stromčeka prezidentom. Národný vianočný stromček zostane rozsvietený do 1. januára.
  • V roku 1961 začala prvá dáma Jacqueline Kennedyová tradíciu tém vianočných stromčekov, keď ozdobila vianočný stromček ozdobami z hračiek z baletu Čajkovského Luskáčik Suite.
  • V roku 1963 bola prvou vianočnou pohľadnicou, ktorá obsahovala vyslovene náboženský prvok, karta Kennedyho s fotografiou betlehemu umiestnenou vo východnej miestnosti Bieleho domu. Jack a Jacqueline podpísali 30 kariet pred poslednou cestou do Dallasu. Žiadny nebol nikdy odoslaný. Národný vianočný stromček toho roku nebol rozsvietený až 22. decembra, pretože po atentáte na prezidenta Kennedyho trvala 30 dní národný smútok.
  • V roku 1969 sa Proroctvo mieru pustilo do právnej polemiky o používaní náboženských symbolov a v roku 1973 už nebol povolený betlehem, ktorý bol vždy súčasťou sprievodu.
  • V roku 1979 nebol rozsvietený Národný vianočný stromček okrem vrchnej ozdoby. Stalo sa to na počesť amerických rukojemníkov v Iráne ...
  • V roku 1981 prezident Ronald Reagan schválil prvý oficiálny ornament Bieleho domu, ktorého kópie boli sprístupnené na kúpu.
  • V roku 1981 absolvovala Barbara Bush prvú z dvanástich jázd čerešničkou na zavesenie hviezdy na vrchol národného vianočného stromčeka.
  • V roku 1984 sa betlehem mohol vrátiť k Prameňu mieru a keď sa 13. decembra rozsvietil Národný vianočný stromček, teploty boli v 70. rokoch, čo z neho robilo jedno z najteplejších rozsvietení stromčeka v histórii.
  • V roku 2001 vybrala Laura Bush prvú vianočnú pohľadnicu do Bieleho domu, ktorá obsahovala Písmo. Citovaný zo žalmu 27, tam bolo napísané: „Tvoju tvár, Pane, hľadám. Verím, že uvidím dobrotu Pána v krajine živých, “o čom Laura Bush verila, že sa stane po tragédii z 11. septembra. Vybrala si to Písmo 16. septembra (iba 5 dní po 11. septembri) na základe kázne, ktorú kaplán kázal v tábore David. Kríži pravidelne používali na vianočné pohľadnice Sväté písmo.

George & amp; Martha Washington (1789-1797)

V čase, keď boli Vianoce v novom národe ešte stále dosť kontroverzné, boli sviatočné hostiny Marty Washingtonovej tvrdé a regulárne záležitosti, ktoré sa celkom hodili k dôstojnosti úradu prezidenta USA a pozvania si miestna šľachta veľmi priala. Washington's usporiadal vianočný večierok pre členov Kongresu na Štedrý deň roku 1795, na ktorom sa hosťom - všetkým mužom s výnimkou prvej dámy - podali bohaté hostiny!

Oslavy na plantáži Mount Vernon vo Virgínii by sa začali za svitania vianočným lovom líšky. Po ňom nasledovali výdatné poludňajšie hostiny, ktoré zahŕňali „vianočný koláč“, tanec, hudbu a návštevy, ktoré sa niekedy nekončili solídnym týždňom.

Andrew & amp; Rachel Jackson (1829-1837)

Od najstarších čias sa konali pamätné večierky pre prezidentove deti alebo vnuky. Jeden z najprepracovanejších bol „žart“ prezidenta Andrewa Jacksona pre deti z jeho domácnosti v roku 1834. Táto párty zahŕňala hry, tanec, veľkolepú večeru a skončila sa vnútorným „súbojom snehovej gule“ so špeciálne vyrobenými vatami.

Abraham & amp; Mary Todd Lincoln (1861-1865)

Počas prvých vojnových Vianoc (1861) pani Lincoln upravovala kvety, čítala knihy, pomáhala podávať jedlá, rozprávala sa s personálom a starala sa o zranených v nemocniciach Campbell a Douglas. Osobne vyzbierala tisíc dolárov na vianočné večere a podobnú sumu darovala aj na pomaranče a citróny, keď sa dopočula, že hrozí skorbut.

Počas vianočného obdobia roku 1863 sprevádzal Lincolnov syn Tad svojho otca pri návštevách nemocnice a všimol si samotu zranených vojakov. Hlboko dojatý chlapec požiadal svojho otca, či môže týmto mužom poslať knihy a oblečenie. Prezident súhlasil a balíčky podpísané „Od Tada Lincolna“ boli tie Vianoce odoslané do regionálnych nemocníc.

Jeden vianočný tad Lincoln sa spriatelil s moriakom, z ktorého sa mala stať štedrá večera. Prerušil schôdzu vlády, aby prosil svojho otca, aby vtáka ušetril. Prezident zaviazal písomným odpustením moriaka Jacka.

Benjamin & amp; Caroline Harrison (1889-1893)

V roku 1889 sa prezident Benjamin Harrison, jeho vnúčatá a širšia rodina zhromaždili pri prvom vnútornom vianočnom strome v Bielom dome.

Grover & amp. Francis Cleveland (1885-1889 1893-1897)

When Grover Cleveland first became President in 1885, there was no Christmas tree during the first Cleveland administration, but when daughters Ruth, Esther, and Marion were born, this changed in the second administration. In 1894, three years after electricity was introduced in the White House, the first electric lights on a family tree delighted the young daughters of President Grover Cleveland.

Mrs. Cleveland’s main Christmas activity, rather than entertaining and decorating, was her work with the Christmas Club of Washington to provide food, clothing, and toys to poor children in the D.C. area. She took the time to wrap and distribute gifts to the children and sat with them for a Punch and Judy show. Although Christmas Club charities in Washington date back to the 1820’s, no previous first lady had taken as prominent a role in these activities as Frances Cleveland, who helped set a tradition of good works carried on by many other First Ladies.

Theodore & Edith Roosevelt (1901-1909)

President Theodore Roosevelt, an avowed conservationist, did not approve of cutting trees for Christmas decorations. However, his son Archie smuggled in a small tree that was decorated and hidden in a closet in the upstairs sewing room.

The Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt family Christmas traditions were quite simple. On Christmas Eve, they would pile into the family sleigh (later the motor car) and travel to Christ Church in Oyster Bay, New York. Following the pastor’s sermon, TR would deliver one of his famous “sermonettes” on the meaning of the holiday. The service would close with one of his favorite hymns “Christmas By the Sea.” On Christmas morning, gifts would be opened and then the family would spend the day hiking, playing games, and going for sleigh rides.

For many years TR played Santa Claus at a school in Oyster Bay, New York, listening to the children and then giving them Christmas presents that he had selected himself.

Calvin & Grace Coolidge (1923-1929)

In 1923, President Calvin Coolidge touches a button and lights up the first national Christmas tree to grace the White House grounds. (Until 1923, holiday celebrations were local in nature.) It was the first to be decorated with electric lights – a strand of 2,500 red, white and green bulbs. While radio station WCAP broadcast the event to possibly a million Americans, the President gave no speech. The evening centered, instead, on Christmas carols and other festive music performed at the tree-lighting ceremony, including by the Epiphany Church choir and the U.S. Marine Band. Later that evening, President Coolidge and first lady Grace were treated to carols sung by members of Washington D.C.’s First Congregational Church.

That year, the erection of a National Christmas Tree was the first of several holiday practices instituted during the Coolidge Presidency that are still with us today. It was 1927 when President Coolidge issued a holiday message to the nation – and then only a brief one written by his own hand on White House stationery. Its text was carried in newspapers across the land on Christmas Day. Finally, in 1928, on his last Christmas Eve in office, the President delivered to the nation via radio the first tree-lighting speech. It was 49 words in length.

Herbert & Lou Hoover (1929-1933)

First Lady Lou Henry Hoover established the custom of decorating an official (and not just a personal) tree in the White House in 1929. Since that time, the honor of trimming a principal White House Christmas tree on the state floor has belonged to our first ladies.

Christmas 1929 was memorable for the Hoovers because an electrical fire broke out in the West Wing of the White House during a children’s party. The Oval Office was gutted, but Mrs. Hoover kept the party going. The Marine Band, meanwhile, played Christmas carols at a volume calculated to drown out the sound of the arriving fire engines.

The following year the same children were invited back for another party at which time each child was given a toy fire engine as a memento. The invitations to the 1930 party read as follows: “This is not like the Christmas parties you usually go to…for Santa Claus has sent word that he is not going to be able, by himself, to take care of all the little girls and boys he wants to this year, and he has asked other people to help him as much as possible. So if you bring some presents with you, we will send them all to him to distribute.” The party was an enormous success.

Hoover, December 25th, 1931

Your annual Christmas service . . . is a dramatic and inspiring event of national interest. It symbolizes and vivifies our greatest Christian festival with its eternal message of unselfishness, joy, and peace. 3

Franklin & Eleanor Roosevelt (1933-1945)

Eleanor initiated Christmas planning each year. Her gift giving list included over 200 names. She began buying gifts in January and regularly put things away in her special “Christmas Closet.” Throughout the year she added new items – gifts for family, friends, and almost everyone on the White House Staff. Each October, she would take over a storage room on the third floor of the White House to wrap the gifts. On Christmas, Franklin would be so interested in the gifts for others that it might be three or four days after Christmas before he was persuaded to open his own.

For the President, Christmas was a time for family and close friends. The tree was set up on Christmas Eve and the President directed his grandchildren in the placement of every ornament. After the tree was decorated, FDR had the grandchildren gather around while he read Charles Dickens’ “A Christmas Carol” or recited it from memory. Following the reading, the children would race upstairs to the President’s bedroom where they would hang their stockings on his mantel.

Around the Manger of the Babe of Bethlehem “all Nations and kindreds and tongues” [Revelation 7:9] find unity. . . . The spirit of Christmas breathes an eternal message of peace and good-will to all men. We pause, therefore, on this Holy Night and . . . rejoice that nineteen hundred years ago, heralded by angels, there came into the world One whose message was of peace, who gave to all mankind a new commandment of love. In that message of love and of peace we find the true meaning of Christmas. And so I greet you with the greeting of the Angels on that first Christmas at Bethlehem which, resounding through centuries, still rings out with its eternal message: “Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good-will to men.” 4

In the happiness of this Eve of the most blessed day in the year, I give to all of my countrymen the old, old greeting – “Merry Christmas – Happy Christmas.” . . . Let us rather pray that we may be given strength to live for others – to live more closely to the words of the Sermon on the Mount and to pray that peoples in the nations which are at war may also read, learn and inwardly digest these deathless words. May their import reach into the hearts of all men and of all nations. I offer them as my Christmas message:
“Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
“Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted.
“Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth.
“Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled.
“Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.
“Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.
“Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God.
“Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness’ sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.” 5

FDR, December 24th, 1941 (Following Pearl Harbor)

There are many men and women in America – sincere and faithful men and women – who are asking themselves this Christmas. . . . How can we meet and worship with love and with uplifted spirit and heart in a world at war, a world of fighting and suffering and death? . . . How can we put the world aside . . . to rejoice in the birth of Christ? . . . And even as we ask these questions, we know the answer. There is another preparation demanded of this Nation beyond and beside the preparation of weapons and materials of war. There is demanded also of us the preparation of our hearts – the arming of our hearts. And when we make ready our hearts for the labor and the suffering and the ultimate victory which lie ahead, then we observe Christmas Day – with all of its memories and all of its meanings – as we should. Looking into the days to come, I have set aside a day of prayer. 6

FDR, December 24th, 1944 (Following D-Day)

Here, at home, we will celebrate this Christmas Day in our traditional American way – because of its deep spiritual meaning to us because the teachings of Christ are fundamental in our lives and because we want our youngest generation to grow up knowing the significance of this tradition and the story of the coming of the immortal Prince of Peace and Good Will. [He then led in a prayer for the troops] We pray that with victory will come a new day of peace on earth in which all the Nations of the earth will join together for all time. That is the spirit of Christmas, the holy day. May that spirit live and grow throughout the world in all the years to come. 7

Harry & Bess Truman (1945-1953)

It became a tradition for the First Family to go home to Independence, Missouri, for Christmas. The Chief Executive, however, always remained in Washington until after the staff party on Christmas Eve.

Truman, December 24th, 1945

This is the Christmas that a war-weary world has prayed for through long and awful years. . . . We meet in the spirit of the first Christmas, when the midnight choir sang the hymn of joy: “Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men.” Let us not forget that the coming of the Savior brought a time of long peace to the Roman World. . . . From the manger of Bethlehem came a new appeal to the minds and hearts of men: “A new commandment I give unto you, that ye love one another.” . . . Would that the world would accept that message in this time of its greatest need! . . . We must strive without ceasing to make real the prophecy of Isaiah: “They shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning-hooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.” In this day, whether it be far or near, the Kingdoms of this world shall become indeed the Kingdom of God and He will reign forever and ever, Lord of Lords and King of Kings. 8

Truman, December 24th, 1949

Since returning home, I have been reading again in our family Bible some of the passages which foretold this night. . . . We miss the spirit of Christmas if we consider the Incarnation as an indistinct and doubtful, far-off event unrelated to our present problems. We miss the purport of Christ’s birth if we do not accept it as a living link which joins us together in spirit as children of the ever-living and true God. In love alone – the love of God and the love of man – will be found the solution of all the ills which afflict the world today. 9

Truman, December 24th, 1950 (During the Korean War)

At this Christmastime we should renew our faith in God. We celebrate the hour in which God came to man. It is fitting that we should turn to Him. . . . But all of us – at home, at war, wherever we may be – are within reach of God’s love and power. We all can pray. We all should pray. . . . We should pray for a peace which is the fruit of righteousness. The Nation already is in the midst of a Crusade of Prayer. On the last Sunday of the old year, there will be special services devoted to a revival of faith. I call upon all of you to enlist in this common cause. . . . We are all joined in the fight against the tyranny of communism. Communism is godless. Democracy is the harvest of faith – faith in one’s self, faith in one’s neighbors, faith in God. Democracy’s most powerful weapon is not a gun, tank, or bomb. It is faith. . . . Let us pray at this Christmastime for the wisdom, the humility, and the courage to carry on in this faith. 10

Truman, December 24th, 1952

Through Jesus Christ the world will yet be a better and a fairer place. This faith sustains us today as it has sustained mankind for centuries past. This is why the Christmas story, with the bright stars shining and the angels singing, moves us to wonder and stirs our hearts to praise. Now, my fellow countrymen, I wish for all of you a Christmas filled with the joy of the Holy Spirit, and many years of future happiness with the peace of God reigning upon this earth. 11

Dwight & Mamie Eisenhower (1953-1961)

Unlike other Presidents who distinguished political from household staff, the Eisenhowers brought both together (more than 500 in all) for a Christmas party each year. For the White House staff, Mamie purchased gifts in area department stores, personally wrapping each one to save money.

President Eisenhower took a personal interest in the gifts and cards that were sent from the White House. Ike was an artist in his own right and allowed six of his own paintings to be used as Christmas gifts and cards during his administration. In eight years, Hallmark produced a prodigious 38 different Christmas cards and gift prints for the President and First Lady. No previous administration, nor any since Eisenhower’s, has sent such a variety of holiday greetings from the White House.

For the Christmas of 1958, Mamie pulled out all the stops in decorating the White House. She had 27 decorated trees, carols were piped into every room and greenery was wrapped around every column.

John & Jacqueline Kennedy (1961-1963)

In 1961, First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy began the tradition of selecting a theme for the official White House Christmas tree. She decorated a tree placed in the oval Blue Room with ornamental toys, birds and angels modeled after Tchaikovsky’s Nutcracker Suite.

The first card to contain an explicitly religious element was in 1963, which featured a photo of a crèche set up in the East Room of the White House. Kennedy and his wife, Jacqueline, had signed 30 cards before their final trip to Dallas where he was assassinated. None of these cards were ever mailed.

Lyndon & Ladybird Johnson (1963-1969)

Lyndon and Ladybird Johnson spent four of their six presidential Christmases in Texas rather than Washington. The Christmas of 1967 (the 7th) was special for the Johnsons because their daughter, Lynda, was married to Charles Robb in the White House on December 9th with 650 guests in attendance. The celebrating continued during Christmas and they spent that Christmas in Washington, the first in seven years.

The Johnsons final Christmas in the White House in 1968 was a time of reflection for them and the opportunity to say goodbye to their friends. On December 23rd, President Johnson sent Christmas greetings to the American troops in Southeast Asia, which included his two sons-in-law.

The First Lady committed herself to the beautification of America and the planting of trees. Except for their unplanned first Christmas in the Executive Mansion, all the cards and gift prints of later years were to feature trees.

We were taught by Him whose birth we commemorate that after death there is life. . . . In these last 200 years we have guided the building of our Nation and our society by those principles and precepts brought to earth nearly 2,000 years ago on that first Christmas. 12

In a few days we shall all celebrate the birth of His Holiness on earth. . . . We shall acknowledge the Kingdom of a Child in a world of men. That Child – we should remember – grew into manhood Himself, preached and moved men in many walks of life, and died in agony. But His death – so the Christian faith tells us – was not the end. For Him, and for millions of men and women ever since, it marked a time of triumph – when the spirit of life triumphed over death. 13

Richard & Pat Nixon (1969-1974)

The Vietnam War was going strong when the Nixons entered the White House in 1969. Pat Nixon personally supervised an elaborate plan for decorating the White House. For the first time in a quarter century, wreaths were hung in every window. In the Great Hall stood a 19-foot fir tree with ornaments that featured the flowers of the fifty states. In response to the National Christmas Tree, war protestors set up their own tree and decorated it with soda pop cans and tin foil peace symbols.

Christmas celebrations during the following years were often filled with controversy and difficulty. In 1969, the Pageant of Peace was embroiled in legal controversy over the use of religious symbols, and in 1973, the nativity scene that had always been part of the pageant was no longer allowed.

Gerald & Betty Ford (1974-1977)

In 1975, to honor America’s upcoming bicentennial celebration, the National Christmas Tree was decorated with 4,600 red, white, and blue ornaments and 12,000 lights. On the top of the 45-foot blue spruce sat a 4-foot gold and green replica of the Liberty Bell. There were also 13 smaller trees representing the 13 colonies and 44 other trees placed in a row representing states and territories.

As we gather here before our Nation’s Christmas tree, symbolic of the communion of Americans at Christmastime, we remind ourselves of the eternal truths by which we live. . . . In our 200 years, we Americans have always honored the spiritual testament of 2,000 years ago. We embrace the spirit of the Prince of Peace so that we might find peace in our own hearts and in our own land, and hopefully in the world as well. 14

Jimmy & Rosayln Carter (1977-1981)

One of the most interesting and controversial aspects of the Carters Presidential Christmases concerned greeting cards. In 1977, the Carters ordered and sent 60,000 Christmas cards, substantially more than any previous administration. In 1978, the number jumped to 100,000 and in 1979 when there were 105,000, President Carter finally established a White House committee to look into the problem of too many Christmas cards!

The hostage crisis in Iran dominated the holiday celebrations of 1979 and 1980. In 1979, the National Christmas Tree and fifty surrounding trees each showed a single light, one for each of the hostages. The President promised to turn on the other lights when the hostages were freed. Because the hostages were still in captivity, the following year the lights on the tree were turned on for 417 seconds on Christmas Eve – one second for each day they had been held.

Carter, December 15th, 1977

Christmas has a special meaning for those of us who are Christians, those of us who believe in Christ, those of us who know that almost 2,000 years ago, the Son of Peace was born to give us a vision of perfection, a vision of humility, a vision of unselfishness, a vision of compassion, a vision of love. 15

Carter, December 18th, 1980

In the first Christmas, the people who lived in the land of the Jews were hoping for a Messiah. They prayed God to send them that savior, and when the shepherds arrived at the place to see their prayers answered they didn’t find a king, they found a little baby. And I’m sure they were very disappointed to see that God had not answered their prayers properly, but we Christians know that the prayers had been answered in a very wonderful way. God knew how to answer prayer. 16

Ronald & Nancy Reagan (1981-1989)

In 1981, President Ronald Reagan began another custom by authorizing the first official White House ornament, copies of which were made available for purchase.

In 1984, the Nativity Scene was allowed to return to the Pageant of Peace.

Christmas in Illinois, where both Ronald and Nancy Reagan grew up, was a sharp contrast to their Christmases in Washington. The President has recalled that his family never had a really fancy Christmas. During the Depression, when they couldn’t afford a Christmas tree, his mother would decorate a table or make a cardboard fireplace out of a packing box.

Reagan, December 23rd, 1981 (click here to listen to this)

At this special time of year, we all renew our sense of wonder in recalling the story of the first Christmas in Bethlehem, nearly 2,000 year ago. Some celebrate Christmas as the birthday of a great and good philosopher and teacher. Others of us believe in the Divinity of the child born in Bethlehem, that He was and is the promised Prince of Peace. . . . Tonight, in millions of American homes, the glow of the Christmas tree is a reflection of the love Jesus taught us. . . . Christmas means so much because of one special child. 17

Reagan, December 16th, 1982

In this holiday season, we celebrate the birthday of One Who, for almost 2,000 years, has been a greater influence on humankind than all the rulers, all the scholars, all the armies and all the navies that ever marched or sailed, all put together. He brought to the world the simple message of peace on Earth, good will to all mankind. Some celebrate the day as marking the birth of a great and good man, a wise teacher and prophet, and they do so sincerely. But for many of us it’s also a holy day, the birthday of the Prince of Peace, a day when “God so loved the world” that He sent us His only begotten Son to assure forgiveness of our sins. 18

Reagan, December 15th, 1983

Many stories have been written about Christmas. Charles Dickens’ “Carol” is probably the most famous. Well, I’d like to read some lines from a favorite of mine called, “One Solitary Life,” which describes for me the meaning of Christmas. [He then read the full story.] . . . I have always believed that the message of Jesus is one of hope and joy. I know there are those who recognize Christmas Day as the birthday of a great and good man, a wise teacher who gave us principles to live by. And then there are others of us who believe that He was the Son of God, that He was Divine. If we live our lives for truth, for love, and for God, we never need be afraid. 19

Reagan, December 12th, 1985

We do not know the exact moment the Christ Child was born, only what we would have seen if we’d been standing there as we stand here now: Suddenly, a star from heaven shining in our eyes, shining with brilliant beauty across the skies, a star pointing toward eternity in the night, like a great ring of pure and endless light, and then all was calm, and all was bright. Such was the beginning of one solitary life that would shake the world as never before or since. When we speak of Jesus and of His life, we speak of a man revered as a prophet and teacher by people of all religions, and Christians speak of someone greater – a man Who was and is Divine. He brought forth a power that is infinite and a promise that is eternal, a power greater than all mankind’s military might, for His power is Godly love, love that can lift our hearts and soothe our sorrows and heal our wounds and drive away our fears. . . . If each of us could give but a fraction to one another of what He gave to the whole human family, how many hearts could heal, how much sorrow and pain could be driven away. 20

George & Barbara Bush (1989-1993)

Mrs. Bush took particular pleasure in hosting a special party for homeless children from the Central Union Mission in Washington, DC. She distributed special Christmas bags filled with gifts and then read them Christmas stories. She sometimes would tell the stories in her own words, giving it her own personal touch.

The First Lady added her own special touches to the holiday with her annual cherry picker ride to hang the star at the top of the National Christmas Tree, a trip she took 12 times beginning in the Reagan Administration as the wife of the Vice President.

During the beautiful and holy season of Christmas, our hearts are filled with the same wonder, gratitude, and joy that led the psalmist of old to ask, “When I consider Thy heavens, the work of Thy fingers, the moon and the stars, which Thou hast ordained, What is man, that Thou art mindful of him? And the son of man, that Thou visitest him?” At Christmas, we, too, rejoice in the mystery of God’s love for us – love revealed through the gift of Christ’s birth. Born into a family of a young carpenter and his wife, in a stable shared by beasts of the field, our Savior came to live among ordinary men. Yet, in time, the miraculous nature of this simple event became clear. Christ’s birth changed the course of history, bringing the light of hope to a world dwelling in the darkness of sin and death. Today, nearly 2,000 years later, the shining promise of that first Christmas continues to give our lives a sense of peace and purpose. Our words and deeds, when guided by the example of Christ’s life, can help others share in the joy of man’s Redemption. 21

Bill & Hillary Clinton (1993-2001)

Clinton, December 22nd, 1997

The beloved Christmas story itself is a story of light, for, as the Gospel of John tells us, Jesus came into the world as “the true Light” [John 1:9] that illumines all humankind. Almost 2,000 years later, that Light still shines amid the dark places of our world. 22

Clinton, December 21st, 1999

Saint Matthew’s Gospel tells us that on the first Christmas 2000 years ago, a bright star shone vividly in the eastern sky, heralding the birth of Jesus and the beginning of His hallowed mission as teacher, healer, servant, and savior. . . . His luminous teachings have brought hope and joy to generations of believers. . . . His timeless message of God’s enduring and unconditional love for each and every person continues to strengthen and inspire us. . . . Love, peace, joy, hope – so many beautiful words are woven through our Christmas songs and prayers and traditions. 23

George & Laura Bush (2001-2009)

George W. Bush is the first president to choose a Yule card with a Scripture. First lady Laura Bush supervises the card selection. She picked cards with Bible verses when her husband was governor and has continued to do so in the White House.

In 2001 George and Laura incorporated a scripture depicting their faith in post 9/11 times. It said “Thy face, Lord do I seek. I believe that I shall see the goodness of the Lord in the Land of the Living.” Psalm 27. Laura Bush believed that this is what really happened after the tragedy of September 11.

In 2004 George and Laura sent holiday cards with a Bible verse from Psalms (95:2): “Let us come before him with Thanksgiving and extol him with music and song.”

Now once again, we celebrate Christmas in a time of testing, with American troops far from home. . . . It is worth recalling the words from a beautiful Christmas hymn. In the third verse of “Oh Holy Night” we sing, “His law is love, and His gospel is peace. Chains ye shall break, for the slave is our brother. And in His name all oppression shall cease. . . . We fight so that oppression may cease, and even in the midst of war, we pray for peace on Earth and good will to men. 24

Throughout the Christmas season our thoughts turn to a star in the east, seen 20 centuries ago, and to a light that can guide us still. . . . The story of Christmas is familiar to us all, and it still holds a sense of wonder and surprise. When the good news came first to a young woman from Nazareth, her response was understandable. She asked, “How can this be?” The news would bring difficulty to her family and suspicion upon herself. Yet, Mary gave her reply, “Be it unto me according to Thy word.” The wait for a new king had been long, and the manner of his arrival was not as many had expected. The king’s first cries were heard by shepherds and cattle. He was raised by a carpenter’s son. Yet this one humble life lifted the sights of humanity forever. And in His words we hear a voice like no other. . . . We don’t know all of God’s ways, yet the Christmas story promises that God’s purpose is justice and His plan is peace. At times this belief is tested. During the Civil War, Longfellow wrote a poem that later became a part of a Christmas carol, “Hate is strong and mocks the song of peace on Earth, good will to men.” That poem also reminds us that hate is not the final word: “Then pealed the bells more loud and deep, `God is not dead, nor doth He sleep, the wrong shall fail, the right prevail, with peace on Earth, good will to men.”‘ 25


9. Advent Calendars

Technically, Advent, a religious event that has been celebrated since the 4th century, is a four-week period that starts on the Sunday closest to the November 30 feast day of St. Andrew the Apostle. Traditionally, it marked the period to prepare for Christmas as well as the Second Coming. These days, it’s mostly used as a countdown to Christmas for the religious and the non-religious alike.

The modern commercialized advent calendar, which marks the passage of December days with little doors containing candy or small gifts, are believed to have been introduced by Gerhard Lang in the early 1900s. He was inspired by a calendar that his mother made for him when he was a child that featured 24 colored pictures attached to a piece of cardboard. Today, advent calendars contain everything from candy to LEGOs.


Christmas Eve

While retreating before Cornwallis, Washington kept sending stern orders to Lee to hasten and join him, so that their combined forces could be used against the British. But Lee did not obey, and came on very slowly. Indeed, he said freely that he did not consider Washington a good general, and often boasted that if he were only at the head of the army the war would soon be over.

Lee was in a little inn in New Jersey, writing a letter to General Gates expressing his opinion of Washington, when he was suddenly surrounded by the British and made a prisoner. Without giving him time to change his dressing-gown and slippers, or get into his uniform, the British bore him off in triumph, thinking they had taken the most clever of all the American generals. But Lee was really no loss, and his army, having fortunately gone on ahead, joined Washington sooner without a general than it would have done had Lee been there.

Many of the Americans now fancied, like the British, that since Lee was a prisoner their mainstay was gone. Besides, the British began to threaten to ill-treat Lee, and as the Americans held no British generals as prisoners, they could not offer an exchange. Knowing this, a Rhode Island officer named Barton made a bold plan.

He had heard that the British General Prescott was quartered on the seashore not very far from Newport. Taking a party of forty brave seamen and soldiers, he rowed with muffled oars right through the British fleet, one dark night. Then a sentinel was noiselessly killed, and the small force surrounded the house where Prescott lay asleep. A moment later the Americans burst into his bedroom, bore him off half clothed to their boats, and, rowing away in safety, sent word to the British that Prescott should receive just the same treatment that they gave Lee. Nine months later an exchange was made, and Lee and Prescott went back to their posts (1778).

In the meantime Washington still avoided a battle, and retreated to the Delaware. There, having cleverly secured every boat within a hundred miles, he took his army over the river. When the British came up, not a single boat was to be had so they camped near the stream, thinking it would soon freeze hard enough to allow them to cross on the ice and seize Philadelphia.

This was a time of great trial for the Americans, and Washington was the only man who did not despair. Still, the British had set a price upon his head, and were loudly boasting that they would soon hang him. Speaking of this, Washington once told his friend Joseph Reed: "My neck does not feel as though it were made for a halter." Then he added that if things came to the worst they would have to retreat into Virginia, or even over the Alleghanies, but that they must never give up the struggle they had begun.

Congress, fearing the British would carry out their plan and seize Philadelphia, now hastily withdrew to Baltimore. But before leaving, Samuel Adams wrote: "Let America exert her own strength, and He who cannot be indifferent to her righteous cause will even work miracles, if necessary, to establish her feet upon a rock."

Washington, as we have seen, was very prudent but he was not lacking in courage. Seeing that the British forces were scattered, he now thought it a fine chance to win a victory, which would rekindle the ardor of his men and give new courage to all the nation.

W ASHINGTON CROSSING THE D ELAWARE .

He therefore planned to surprise the Hessians at Trenton by crossing the river, in spite of huge cakes of floating ice which nearly blocked it. Marblehead fishermen were put in charge of the boats, and such was their skill and daring that they took twenty-four hundred men safely over. This crossing of the Delaware on Christmas Right (1776) was one of the most daring feats ever performed. Besides, the men were only half clad, and so badly shod that they left bloody footprints in the snow and the cold was so intense that night, that two of their number were actually frozen to death.

In spite of drifting snow and driving wind, Washington's force marched bravely on, and surprised the Hessians at Trenton. The wounded commander, Rahl, was forced to surrender, and his whole army was seized. We are told that the Hessian soldiers had been so busy keeping Christmas that they were all half drunk, and that Rahl himself was too absorbed in a game of cards to read a note sent to warn him of his peril. Thinking it a matter of no importance, he thrust it into his pocket unread, and thus he and his men fell into Washington's hands.

The news of the victory of Trenton filled the hearts of the Americans with great joy, but it proved a bitter disappointment to Cornwallis. Fancying the war all over, he had packed his trunks and gone on board a vessel to return to England. But now General Howe sent him back in haste to Trenton to fight Washington. Hedged in between a river full of floating ice and a large army, it now seemed as if Washington could not escape.

One evening, therefore, Cornwallis gleefully told one of his officers that they would "bag the old fox "on the next day. The officer suggested that it might be better not to postpone it till the morrow but Cornwallis answered that this time the Americans could not escape. That same night, however, Washington took advantage of the fact that the roads froze hard enough to enable him to remove his cannon, and slipped away by back roads, leaving his camp fires burning brightly so as to deceive the enemy. When the British awoke the next morning, the "old fox" was gone, and sounds of firing in the direction of Princeton soon convinced them that a battle must be going on there.

Running into Cornwallis's tent, an officer roused him, crying: "To arms, general! Washington has outgeneraled us. Let us fly to the rescue of Princeton!" But, notwithstanding all their haste, they reached Princeton only after the battle—on the present college grounds was all over, and the victorious Washington had safely advanced to Morristown Heights. This campaign, in the dead of winter, was so wonderful that it won for Washington the title of "Savior of his Country," and Frederick the Great of Prussia once said that it was the most brilliant piece of generalship in the pages of history.


3 Decorations and Parties

In colonial times, people did not decorate with tinsel or colorful lights. Instead, they decorated their homes with fragrant sprigs of herbs and rose petals. Churches decorated for the holiday, too. On Christmas Eve, ivy, holly, mistletoe and mountain laurel covered the ceiling and walls. Garlands hung from the pulpit and pews. Wealthy people opened their homes to guests for dinner. Guests danced in ballrooms, hunted game, played parlor games and dined on sumptuous food. Servants and slaves received gifts and often had the day off. On Christmas Day, men set off firecrackers, shot cannons and fired muskets as part of the celebration.


13 U.S. history facts about the 13 original colonies

Here are some interesting facts about each of the first 13 states you might not know (or at the very least, a reminder of which states were the original 13).

Plenty of people get the day off from work for the biggest birthday bash of the year—America’s. And as we prepare to wish our country a very happy birthday, it's fun to take a minute brush up on some related U.S. history facts and to reflect on what it is we are actually celebrating.

The 4 th of July or July 4 th are the most common names for this holiday, but let’s not forget this is truly Deň nezávislosti. It’s a celebration of a time when 13 colonies, made up of people from different backgrounds with different ideals, banded together to fight for independence so that those ideals might live on in this great nation.

You probably already knew that’s what those 13 original colonies did on that historic day back in 1776, in their quest to eventually become independent states. So, here are some interesting facts about each of the first 13 states you might nie know.

[And if you want to dive deeper into our history as a nation, check out Brainscape’s History flashcards].


Čo bude ďalej?

The Platt Amendment was written during another key time in American history. Learn all about this important document, and how it is still influencing Guantanamo Bay, by reading our complete guide to the Platt Amendment.

Transcendentalism was a key movement in 19th-century America, but many people still aren't sure what it was all about. Read our guide on transcendentalism for everything you need to know about key transcendentalist beliefs, an overview of the movement's history, and key players.

Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!

Christine graduated from Michigan State University with degrees in Environmental Biology and Geography and received her Master's from Duke University. In high school she scored in the 99th percentile on the SAT and was named a National Merit Finalist. She has taught English and biology in several countries.


Pozri si video: Vianočné rozprávanie - Traja králi prichádzajú